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Manda B. Chasteen, Steven E. Koch, and David B. Parsons

associated with a northwesterly wind surge accompanying a surface cold front that had been reinforced by convective outflow. As shown in the RAP analysis, this cold front propagated southeastward with time in tandem with an upper-level short-wave trough embedded within northwesterly flow ( Figs. 3a,b ). Fig . 2. Surface observations from (a) ASOS locations overlaid with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-13 ( GOES-13 ) 10.7- μ m IR satellite imagery and (b) Oklahoma Mesonet locations

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Tammy M. Weckwerth and Ulrike Romatschke

, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS3307.1 . 10.1175/JAS3307.1 Augustine , J. A. , and K. W. Howard , 1988 : Mesoscale convective complexes over the United States during 1985 . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 116 , 685 – 701 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1988)116<0685:MCCOTU>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1988)116<0685:MCCOTU>2.0.CO;2 Banta , R. M. , 1984 : Daytime boundary-layer evolution over mountainous terrain. Part I: Observations of the dry circulations . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 112 , 340 – 356 , https

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Thomas R. Parish

of over 20 m s −1 after midnight. Although Means (1954) previously described an individual LLJ event, the Great Plains Turbulence Research Program provided the first extended period of observations of the LLJ. In the six decades since that field study, the LLJ has been documented extensively through measurements from pilot balloons, radiosondes/rawinsondes, aircraft, wind profilers, and lidar (e.g., Hoecker 1963 ; Bonner 1968 ; Parish et al.1988 ; Frisch et al. 1992 ; Mitchell et al. 1995

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Hristo G. Chipilski, Xuguang Wang, and David B. Parsons

. 1991 ). Although the object-based algorithm already utilizes motion vector estimates for the purposes of object tracking (see discussion on in section 3b ), we propose an alternative method to estimate in the neighborhood of the user-defined reference point (i.e., ). Such a consideration takes into account the scarcity of bore observations and allows the algorithm to perform model verification only in regions where such data are readily available. To calculate , we consider the target

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