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F. Joseph Turk, Ziad S. Haddad, and Yalei You

) set of global cloud-free emissivities derived from AMSR-E TB observations, using coincident A-Train satellite data for assessing the cloud vertical structure and associated atmospheric and surface conditions. The merger of the W-band (94 GHz) CloudSat Profiling Radar (CPR; Tanelli et al. 2008 ) and the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard the companion Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations ( CALIPSO ) satellite aids in more consistent

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W. E. Eichinger, H. E. Holder, R. Knight, J. Nichols, D. I. Cooper, L. E. Hipps, W. P. Kustas, and J. H. Prueger

.-Layer Meteor. , 61 , 247 – 274 . 10.1007/BF02042934 Melfi, S. H. , Spinhirne J. D. , Chou S. H. , and Palm S. P. , 1985 : Lidar observations of vertically organized convection in the planetary boundary layer over the ocean. J. Climate Appl. Meteor. , 24 , 806 – 821 . 10.1175/1520-0450(1985)024<0806:LOOVOC>2.0.CO;2 Munley, W. G. , and Hipps L. E. , 1991 : Estimation of regional evaporation for a tallgrass prairie from measurements of properties of the atmospheric boundary layer. Water

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Jeffrey S. Deems, Steven R. Fassnacht, and Kelly J. Elder

s −1 ; (d) Alpine, winds during or within 1 day of precipitation events. Fig . 4. Daily SWE observations from (a) Rabbit Ears and (b) Berthoud Pass Summit SNOTEL sites. Fig . 5. Daily snow depth observations collected at micrometeorological stations near the center of each study site, (a) Walton Creek and (b) Alpine. Vertical lines indicate dates of lidar data acquisition: dashed line is 2005 and dotted line is 2003. Fig . 6. Snow depth histograms for (a) Walton Creek and (b) Alpine. Fig . 7

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Jicheng Liu, Curtis E. Woodcock, Rae A. Melloh, Robert E. Davis, Ceretha McKenzie, and Thomas H. Painter

effects of within-crown gaps. This paper also explores the effect of the density of field samples and the ability to use airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) data for parameter estimation for discrete object models like the GO and GORT models. 2. Description of the GORT model The hybrid geometrical optical–radiative transfer model is a canopy directional reflectance model that evolved from the GO model of Li and Strahler (1992) and includes the effects of within-crown gaps, given the foliage

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Richard Essery, Peter Bunting, Aled Rowlands, Nick Rutter, Janet Hardy, Rae Melloh, Tim Link, Danny Marks, and John Pomeroy

comparison with ground-based measurements, to investigate the spatial and temporal scaling of subcanopy radiation statistics, and to develop parameterizations of those statistics. Data from aerial photography and lidar (light detection and ranging) scanning of a coniferous forest with areas of varying canopy density and uniformity are used, as described in the next section. Crowns are delineated in the photograph to map the location and crown diameter of each tree, and tree heights are assigned from

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Nicholas Dawson, Patrick Broxton, and Xubin Zeng

1989 ; Maurer et al. 2003 ; Dozier and Painter 2004 ; Foster et al. 2005 ; Tedesco and Narvekar 2010 ; Li et al. 2012 ; Mizukami and Perica 2012 ), or when the snowpack is too deep ( Markus et al. 2006 ; Mätzler 1994 ) or wet ( Frei et al. 2012 ). One of the factors limiting the improvement of SWE estimates that utilize remotely sensed data in these areas is the lack of high-quality, spatially and temporally extensive snow observations. New technologies, such as airborne lidar as used in the

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Giulia Mazzotti, Johanna Malle, Sarah Barr, and Tobias Jonas

subsequent hemispherical imagery, and manually georeferenced with the help of a lidar-based canopy height model (cf. section 2e ) and aerial imagery available for the sites. Meteorological conditions in form of synoptic weather observations were recorded to categorize cloud cover during each survey, distinguishing between clear sky, partial cloud cover and overcast conditions. We further computed apparent sky emittance ε A ( Marty and Philipona 2000 ) as quantitative indicator of cloudiness (cf

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Jeffrey S. Deems, Steven R. Fassnacht, and Kelly J. Elder

varying density. Field observations indicate that snow distributions at all sites are dominated by wind redistribution and wind interaction with terrain and vegetation patterns. Wind direction frequency distributions, calculated from meteorologic data collected at each of the study sites for a period of 1 October 2002 through the lidar flight date of 9 April 2003 ( Elder and Goodbody 2004 ), indicate that winds of speeds greater than 5 m s −1 (at 10-m height) are confined to narrow direction bands

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Nicholas Dawson, Patrick Broxton, Xubin Zeng, Michael Leuthold, Michael Barlage, and Pat Holbrook

Nevada, California . Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. , 18 , 4261 – 4275 , doi: 10.5194/hess-18-4261-2014 . Kumar, S. , and Coauthors , 2014 : Assimilation of remotely sensed soil moisture and snow depth retrievals for drought estimation . J. Hydrometeor. , 15 , 2446 – 2469 , doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-13-0132.1 . Kumar, S. , Peters-Lidar C. D. , Arsenault K. R. , Getirana A. , Mocko D. , and Liu Y. , 2015 : Quantifying the added value of snow cover area observations in passive microwave snow

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William P. Kustas, Jerry L. Hatfield, and John H. Prueger

sensible heat, as well as net radiation and soil heat flux, with a subset measuring carbon dioxide flux. Additional hydrometeorological observations included wind speed and direction, air temperature, vapor pressure, near-surface soil temperature and moisture, and below- and above-canopy radiometric surface temperature. At one site, a ground-based light detection and ranging (lidar) system from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the University of Iowa (UI), measuring ABL water vapor, height

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