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Andreas Schäfler, Ben Harvey, John Methven, James D. Doyle, Stephan Rahm, Oliver Reitebuch, Fabian Weiler, and Benjamin Witschas

their influence on high-impact weather downstream ( Schäfler et al. 2018 ). For the first time, an established Doppler wind lidar payload on board the research aircraft DLR Falcon performed dedicated observations of the jet stream winds providing both high vertical and horizontal resolution, which is not available from other observational sources. Additionally, the wind lidar dataset is supplemented by dropsonde and ground-based wind profiler observations to provide a wider coverage and to

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Paul J. Neiman, R. M. Hardesty, M. A. Shapiro, and R. E. Cupp

NOVEMBER 1988 NEIMAN ET AL. 2265Doppler Lidar Observations of a Downslope Windstorm PAUL J. NEIMANCooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado/NOAA, Boulder, ColoradoR. M. HARDESTY, M. A. SHAPIRO AND R. E. CUPPNOAA/ERL / Wave Propagation Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado(Manuscript received 12 February 1988, in final form 5 May 1988

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Paul J. Neiman, M. A. Shapiro, R. Michael Hardesty, B. Boba Stankov, Rhidian T. Lawrence, Robert J. Zamora, and Tamara Hampel

AUGUST 1988 NEIMAN ET AL. 1671The Pulsed Coherent Doppler Lidar: Observations of Frontal Structure and the Planetary Boundary Layer PAUL J. NEIMANCooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado/NO/tA, Boulder, ColoradoM. A. SHAPIRO, R. MICHAEL HARDESTY, B. BOBA STANKOV, RHIDIAN T. LAWRENCE,ROBERT J. ZAMORA, AND

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Yelena L. Pichugina, Robert M. Banta, Joseph B. Olson, Jacob R. Carley, Melinda C. Marquis, W. Alan Brewer, James M. Wilczak, Irina Djalalova, Laura Bianco, Eric P. James, Stanley G. Benjamin, and Joel Cline

1. Introduction Assessment and improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP) model skill require accurate profile measurements of meteorological quantities, including wind. Here we use high-precision, high-resolution wind profiles measured by shipborne Doppler lidar during a monthlong research cruise to evaluate the performance of two modeling systems in the marine atmosphere over the Gulf of Maine, an especially difficult environment in which to obtain such measurements. The focus of this

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Guo Lin, Bart Geerts, Zhien Wang, Coltin Grasmick, Xiaoqin Jing, and Jing Yang

along the boundary. These observations detail the vertical structure of the frontal/outflow boundary, and document lofting sufficient for the initiation of new convective cells that sustain the MCS. A secondary objective is to illustrate how vertical transects of temperature and humidity from an airborne Raman lidar can be used as a novel source of model validation: model validations traditionally have focused on radar reflectivity patterns (i.e., the effect, the resulting precipitation), rather

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Heike Kalesse, Gijs de Boer, Amy Solomon, Mariko Oue, Maike Ahlgrimm, Damao Zhang, Matthew D. Shupe, Edward Luke, and Alain Protat

properties of midlatitude cirrus clouds from four ground-based lidars and collocated CALIOP observations . J. Geophys. Res. , 115 , D00H24 , doi: 10.1029/2009JD011943 . Dyer , A. J. , and B. B. Hicks , 1970 : Flux-gradient relationships in the constant flux layer . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 96 , 715 – 721 , doi: 10.1002/qj.49709641012 . Eloranta , E. , 2005 : High spectral resolution lidar. Lidar: Range-Resolved Optical Remote-Sensing of the Atmosphere , K. Weitkamp, Ed., Springer

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Elizabeth N. Smith, Joshua G. Gebauer, Petra M. Klein, Evgeni Fedorovich, and Jeremy A. Gibbs

, and NLLJs. Primary data sources for NLLJ cases were the boundary layer profiles measured by mobile and fixed PECAN Integrated Sounding Arrays (PISAs). These datasets included profiles of dynamic and thermodynamic parameters obtained at high temporal and vertical resolution using Doppler lidars, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometers (AERIs), radar wind profilers, radiosondes, and microwave radiometers (MWRs), providing observations to describe the SBL and NLLJ evolution. There were four

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Robert M. Banta, Yelena L. Pichugina, W. Alan Brewer, Aditya Choukulkar, Kathleen O. Lantz, Joseph B. Olson, Jaymes Kenyon, Harindra J. S. Fernando, Raghu Krishnamurthy, Mark J. Stoelinga, Justin Sharp, Lisa S. Darby, David D. Turner, Sunil Baidar, and Scott P. Sandberg

. 2019 ; Olson et al. 2019b ). For this paper, in addition to the lidars we used a limited set of instrumentation, including NWS airport-site observations and rawinsonde data that would be available to operational forecasters. To document the primary diurnal solar forcing for these flows, its horizontal variability, and the ability of HRRR to reproduce it, sites measuring surface radiation were located at three Oregon locations: Condon, Wasco, and Rufus. Data from a similar fourth site at Eugene

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Guixing Chen, Xinyue Zhu, Weiming Sha, Toshiki Iwasaki, Hiromu Seko, Kazuo Saito, Hironori Iwai, and Shoken Ishii

of the mean sea level pressure at 1200 JST; and (b) the surface temperature and winds at 1300 JST as observed by AMeDAS. A full (half) wind barb is 2 (1) m s −1 . In (b), the topography is shaded in gray. In June 2007, an observation campaign on sea breezes was conducted over Sendai Airport. In addition to conventional surface observations, intensive observations from ground-based NICT and Electronic Navigation Research Institute (ENRI) Doppler lidars ( Komatsubara and Kaku 2005 ) and Japan

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Lisa R. Bucci, Sharanya J. Majumdar, Robert Atlas, G. David Emmitt, and Steve Greco

groundwork for more advanced OSSEs, aimed at the understanding of how the assimilation of wind profiles from space-based Doppler Wind lidar would affect TC analyses and forecasts. Future planned experiments include a systematic evaluation of idealized vertical coverage of wind observations in and around a TC to determine the most impactful observations ( Torn 2014 ). Further refinements of existing experiments include the assimilation of Line-of-Sight observations in various spatial coverage patterns and

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