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Antoni Jordi and Sultan Hameed

1. Introduction Ocean convection is a key process for climate, ocean circulation, and the marine ecosystem that occurs in very few regions of the world. In particular, ocean convection to intermediate or full ocean depths has been observed in the Gulf of Lion (northwestern Mediterranean Sea) during the winter season (e.g., MEDOC Group 1970 ; Canals et al. 2006 ). This process shows high levels of interannual variability that is not well understood ( Mertens and Schott 1998 ). Atmospheric

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Agata Moscatello, Mario Marcello Miglietta, and Richard Rotunno

1. Introduction It is well known that the western Mediterranean Sea is an important cyclogenetic area (for a recent review of the observational literature, see Campins et al. 2006 ). As the Mediterranean Sea is bordered by long and tall mountain chains, orographic lee cyclogenesis [ Buzzi and Tibaldi (1978) ; for reviews see Pierrehumbert (1984) , or more recently, Davis and Stoelinga (1999) ] is often implicated in the formation of cyclones in this area. It is also true that, being a large

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M. Susan Lozier and Laurie Sindlinger

1. Introduction Surface waters of the eastern North Atlantic that flow into the Mediterranean Sea through the Strait of Gibraltar are subject to an excess of evaporation over precipitation in this enclosed sea, making them more saline and dense before they exit the strait and return to the North Atlantic. After exiting the strait, these return waters mix with the surrounding waters in the Gulf of Cadiz ( Baringer and Price 1997 ) to produce a water mass known as Mediterranean Overflow Water

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Massimiliano Burlando, Djordje Romanić, Giovanni Solari, Horia Hangan, and Shi Zhang

events in an area of the Mediterranean region (i.e., the Ligurian and northern Tyrrhenian Sea), systematic research has recently been undertaken thanks to the creation of an extensive, permanent, and high quality wind monitoring network ( section 2 ) realized for two European Union (EU) projects, “Wind and Ports” (WP; Solari et al. 2012 ) and “Wind, Ports and Sea” (WPS; Repetto et al. 2017 ), which took place in the period between 2009 and 2015. The Wind Engineering and Structural Dynamics (Windyn

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Salvatore Marullo, Vincenzo Artale, and Rosalia Santoleri

Mediterranean Sea. None of these works studies in detail the Mediterranean SST multidecadal variability even if the Mediterranean Sea is often included in their global analysis (e.g., Fig. 1 of Sutton and Hodson 2005 ). The main objective of this paper is to place the Mediterranean Sea at the center of the debate by investigating in detail the multidecadal variability of the Mediterranean SST field and its relation with the global ocean. This objective has been pursued using the most recent reconstructed

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Alejandro Hermoso, Victor Homar, and Arnau Amengual

.g., Ramis et al. 1994 ; Doswell et al. 1998 ; Homar et al. 2002 ; Martín et al. 2007 ; Michaelides et al. 2018 ). The relatively warm Mediterranean Sea acts as a heat and moisture source during late summer and early autumn. Indeed, the maximum climatological frequency of flash flood producing HPEs occurs in autumn (e.g., Llasat et al. 2010 ). The combination of this factor with the presence of cold midlevel disturbances and maritime warm and moist air at low levels generates convective instability

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Vassilis P. Papadopoulos, Aristides Bartzokas, Themistoklis Chronis, Dimitris Georgopoulos, and George Ferentinos

influence critical for the marine ecosystems. Therefore, the climatology of the atmospheric factors affecting the air–sea heat exchanges is more conclusive when studied on a monthly or seasonal instead of the synoptic time scale. The influence of the large-scale atmospheric variability over the North Atlantic and Europe on air–sea heat exchanges in the Mediterranean Sea is rather complex and area dependent ( Josey et al. 2011 ). Ruiz et al. (2008) describe the impacts of large-scale atmospheric

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Marco Zavatarielli and George L. Mellor

1384 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME2$A Numerical Study of the Mediterranean Sea Circulation MARCO ZAVATARELLI* AND GEORGE L. MELLORProgram in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey(Manuscript received 7 October 1992, in final form 12 August 1994) ABSTRAC'T A primitive equation ocean model that makes use of a curvilinear' orthogonal grid

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Helena A. Flocas, Ian Simmonds, John Kouroutzoglou, Kevin Keay, Maria Hatzaki, Vicky Bricolas, and Demosthenes Asimakopoulos

dynamics and determining the impact on regional climates in the future. The eastern Mediterranean, extending between 20° and 38°E to include the Ionian, Aegean, and Levantine Seas (see Fig. 1 ), is an area of great interest with respect to cyclone behavior, because of its location between the subtropics and midlatitudes and also its complex topography ( HMSO 1962 ). In addition, the Mediterranean Basin is considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change ( Solomon et al. 2007 ), and it is of

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Jordi Isern-Fontanet, Emilio García-Ladona, and Jordi Font

their statistics. Several of such vortex censuses have been built in different parts of the World Ocean from observations of infrared imagery ( Brown et al. 1986 ; Lentini et al. 2002 ), a combination of climatological in situ data and satellite altimetry ( Goni and Johns 2001 ), or general circulation models ( Chassignet 1992 ). In the Mediterranean Sea, while there exists a wide literature on observational evidences of vortices, most of the studies on the general circulation have been more

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