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Francesco Raffa, Giovanni Ludeno, Giuseppa Buscaino, Gianmaria Sannino, Adriana Carillo, Rosario Grammauta, Domenico Spoto, Francesco Soldovieri, Salvatore Mazzola, and Francesco Serafino

low frequencies (<1 kHz) ( Hildebrand 2009 ). Despite its high level of biodiversity ( Myers et al. 2000 ), the Mediterranean Sea is affected by heavy traffic, and especially at lower frequencies, the Strait of Sicily, the principal corridor between the eastern and western basins, is characterized by heavy acoustic pollution ( Buscaino et al. 2016 ). Characterizing and evaluating the contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources is crucial for assessing the impact of human-made disturbances

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Rui M. Ponte

P a station data to show the importance of η ib trends in explaining the relatively weak sea level trends in the western Mediterranean over the last decades of the twentieth century. In addition to changing the trends, by removing low-frequency variance from the records η ib corrections lead to generally smaller uncertainties ( Table 1) . These effects are particularly important for stations in the eastern North Atlantic with relatively strong η ib variability: formal error bars are 20

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Jean-Marie Beckers, Alexander Barth, Charles Troupin, and Aida Alvera-Azcárate

distributed randomly in part of the domain (schematic case) and a realistic case of the Mediterranean Sea. b. Aligned data points A slightly more complicated situation is one where 10 points are aligned in y = 0 for x ≥ 0 as shown in Fig. 4 . Fig . 4. Error fields for 10 data points in y = 0, x ≥ 0. White crosses indicate real data locations, and black dots pseudodata locations. The poor man’s error is now clearly too optimistic, also at the data locations, because it overestimates the error

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Mike Pedder and Damia Gomis

estimation of dynamic height profiles in the vicinity of soundings that do not extend to a prescribed reference level. 2. Data All results presented in this study have been derived from two hydrographic datasets collected during intensive oceanographic surveys. The first was obtained in the Alboran Sea (western Mediterranean), hereafter referred to as the AS dataset, and the second in the eastern basin of the Bransfield Strait (Antarctica), hereafter referred to as the BS dataset. The AS data were

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David Pozo Vázquez, Chakir Atae-Allah, and Pedro L. Luque Escamilla

the obtained results and offers a discussion of these results in comparison to those obtained using others methods proposed in the literature. Finally, some remarkable conclusions are proposed. 2. The data In this study we have used National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; NOAA-14 ) High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) images corresponding to an area located near the Iberian Peninsula, covering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea ( Fig. 1 ). The images were

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Alcide di Sarra, Carlo Bommarito, Fabrizio Anello, Tatiana Di Iorio, Daniela Meloni, Francesco Monteleone, Giandomenico Pace, Salvatore Piacentino, and Damiano Sferlazzo

the incidence angle, which is the angle between the incoming radiation direction and the normal to the surface. The downwelling irradiance in some cases is also called downwelling radiation. In the Mediterranean Sea, components of the surface ocean energy budget have been used to investigate the regional climate ( Matsoukas et al. 2005 ; Nabat et al. 2015 ) and to close the basinwide heat budget and estimate the contribution of evaporation to sea level changes (e.g., Gilman and Garrett 1994

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David Antoine, Pierre Guevel, Jean-François Desté, Guislain Bécu, Francis Louis, Alec J. Scott, and Philippe Bardey

briefly presented, and sample data are also shown to demonstrate the capability of the new platform. The organization of the paper deliberately follows the chronology of the various steps that were needed to reach the final design and construction, which now allows a quasi-permanent data collection at the selected site in the Mediterranean Sea. Writing along these lines illustrates the successive steps, tests, and optimizations, also including the unavoidable difficulties and failures that pave the

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Pierre Cauchy, Karen J. Heywood, Nathan D. Merchant, Bastien Y. Queste, and Pierre Testor

profiles with surface weather measurements on submesoscales (i.e., kilometer scale), tracking a weather event or monitoring a selected area for many months, would be highly valuable for air–sea interaction studies. This paper presents a novel method for measuring surface wind speed using glider-borne underwater ambient noise measurements, from the subsurface to 1 km deep. We deployed gliders equipped with PAM sensors in the Mediterranean Sea during winter 2012/13 in the framework of the Deep Water

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A. Alvarez and B. Mourre

proposed in Zhang et al. (2007) and to test more sophisticated fleet formations. Finally, Hayes et al. (2010) sampled a warm core eddy in the Levantine Sea (eastern Mediterranean) using three underwater gliders coordinated in an equilateral triangular formation. Cooperative and unaware networks gliders have also been studied in the literature. Alvarez et al. (2007) used a genetic algorithm to find optimal glider trajectories to provide, together with an unevenly distributed network of floats, the

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Antonio Turiel, Jordi Isern-Fontanet, and Emilio García-Ladona

the shape of some eddies ( Pascual et al. 2006 ). However, previous studies have demonstrated that sampling characteristics of altimetric maps are good enough to capture and track the largest and most energetic vortices observed in the western Mediterranean Sea (e.g., Millot 1999 ; Pascual et al. 2002 ; Larnicol et al. 2002 ; Puillat et al. 2002 ; Font et al. 2004 ). Velocities are estimated from the sea level anomaly h ′, as usual, assuming a geostrophic relationship where g is

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