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P. Alpert, M. Tsidulko, and U. Stein

VOL. 52, NO. 5FIG. 1. Analyzed ECMWF surface synoptic charts over the Mediterranean region for (a) 4 March1983 1200 UTC and (b) 5 March 1983 1200 UTC. Contour interval is 2.5 hPa.related to the second-phase deepening (Dell'Osso andRadinovic 1984). The effects of the surface latent andsensible heat fluxes from the sea region located in thelee were also suggested as contributing to the cyclone's formation (Tibaldi et al. 1990). Consequently, four factors were chosen: topography (t),surface latent

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J. Zhang, Y. Wu, C. L. Liu, Z. B. Shen, and Y. Zhang

. 1994 ; Chen et al. 1997 ; Kim et al. 1998 ). It was indicated that in coastal oceans (e.g., Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, and Irish Sea) the origin of air mass, rather than the marine sampling location, constrains the fingerprint of aerosol compositions ( Chester and Bradshaw 1991 ; Guieu et al. 1997 ; Chester et al. 2000 ). Very few data are available to examine this synthesis at the North Pacific Ocean. The atmosphere of China and the adjacent coastal ocean is strongly influenced by

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Xingchao Chen, Fuqing Zhang, and Kun Zhao

1. Introduction The land and sea breeze is a localized circulation driven by the diurnal varying differential heating between land and ocean. This phenomenon can be found in almost every coastal area around the world from the tropics (e.g., Qian 2012 ) to the polar regions (e.g., Bromwich et al. 2005 ). Nowadays, more than 40% of the world population lives within 150 km of the coastline; thus the land- and sea-breeze circulations may have a huge impact on air pollution (e.g., Zhang et al

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J. Neumann and Y. Mahrer

nearby water surface. In (15c) the additive term x/10- increases the amplitudes from the coast as far as 20 km inland. This rateof increase is based on conjecture and is not a firmfigure. We have stopped the increase at 20 km for wenoted from air temperature observations in Israel thatthere is little change in the air temperature range beyondabout 20 km from the Mediterranean coast (exceptingareas which are well above or welt below mean sea level).d. Matching of solutions We followed Estoque

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David D. Houghton, John E. Kutzbach, Michael McClintock, and David Suchman

VOL. 31, NO. 4 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES MAY 1974Response of a General Circulation Model to a Sea Temperature PerturbationDAVID D. HOUGI~ITON,1 JOHN E. KUTZBACH,1 MICHAEL McCLINTOCK2 AND DAVID SUCHMAN1 University of Wisconsin, Madison, 53706 (Manuscript received 10 January 1973, in revised form 17 December 1973)ABSTRACT Sea temperature anomalies which departed from the

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U. Stein and P. Alpert

in some aspects. A few questions arise, likewhat is the dynamical explanation of the local precipitation maximum near Cyprus or the decrease of rainfall over the sea at distances of about 50-100 km tothe west of the coast in Fig. 4d. Obtaining the net effectof each factor facilitates the understanding ofmesoscalemechanisms influencing the local weather. A more detailed study of cyclogenesis in the Mediterranean, applying this method for a few case studies, will be presented in a forthcoming paper

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Hannu Savijärvi and Stuart Matthews

1. Introduction Three types of island circulation can be identified in the meteorological literature: those associated with large, flat islands; those associated with tall islands; and those associated with small islands. All three types occur within a stable maritime environment. Large islands, such as the Tiwi Islands ( Saito et al. 2001 ) and Puerto Rico ( Malkus 1955 ) mainly appear to generate sea- breeze-assisted convective mesoscale complexes, while tall islands, such as Hawaii ( Smith

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Arnold Tafferner and Joseph Egger

model produces asurface low at the right position (Fig. 3a). The Alpineridge is captured as well as is the observed strongnortherly flow into the western Mediterranean. Thesimulation of the upper-level development is also satisfactory. The axis of the simulated trough is in aboutthe correct position (Fig. 3b). However, the model doesnot predict the formation of the cut-off center. The same case has been simulated by Dell'Osso(1984) who used the ECMWF model's limited areaversion. Dell

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Maurice L. Blackmon, John M. Wallace, Ngar-Cheung Lau, and Steven L. Mullen

frequency.The patterns differ considerably over the Mediterranean Sea, the Great Lakes and other warm bodiesof water where Petterssen's data show strong localconcentrations of cyclone centers, whereas our resultsindicate little, if any, enhanced variability. Thus, itseems likely that many of the cyclones over theseareas in Petterssen's analyses may be rather shallowand/or quasi-stationary. The variance patterns indicate a more widespread region of "lee-side cyclogenesis" downstream from the Rockies than

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William H. Klein

andpolar regions. Although the isopleths are primarilyzonal in orientation, regions in which pressure variability exceeds the latitudinal average (meridional ridgelines in the pattern) are found chiefly off the east coastof North America, near the Rocky mountains in theUnited States, just east of the Ural mountains andCaspian Sea in the Soviet Union, and in the Mediterranean. All these areas are well known cyclogeneticregions, where thermal or topographic effects favorincreased variability of pressure

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