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Johannes Schmetz and W. Paul Menzel

of the successes and issues from the past that established satellites into their current pivotal role. We note that our perspective is subjective and limited; however, it is from two scientists that transitioned into middle management. We started in a hands-on period contributing to the scientific development of satellite programs, transitioned to guiding the technical and scientific development of satellite systems, and finally became participants who interacted closely with top management that

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Jason Senkbeil, Jennifer Collins, and Jacob Reed

) , and Collins et al. (2017) . Rest areas often have high foot traffic with participants that are in relaxed atmospheres, resulting in high response rates. Traffic congestion, or high traffic volume, is a prerequisite to collect a large sample size of participants. Evacuees are more willing to talk candidly about their experiences and answer questions if they feel their evacuation progress is impeded by traffic. A 20-question survey, consisting of written responses and Likert-scale answers, was

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Scott Greene, Laurence S. Kalkstein, David M. Mills, and Jason Samenow

, the Parallel Climate Model (PCM) was used to complete climate simulations with the results then being downscaled to the appropriate location for each city. The PCM is a global coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) that provides state-of-the-art simulations of the earth’s past, present, and future climate states. Included in the PCM is a series of submodels of the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land. The

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Ann Bostrom, Rebecca E. Morss, Jeffrey K. Lazo, Julie L. Demuth, Heather Lazrus, and Rebecca Hudson

too much warning or too much information, we would rather let you know if the atmosphere hiccups in the middle of the Atlantic” (BR3). The inherently uncertain nature of hurricane evolution makes accurate forecasting a challenge. Recognizing this, all of the professionals mentioned errors in forecasting or evaluating a hurricane threat. For example, one public official observed that a hurricane “could be very unpredictable as far as its strength, its size, the destruction that it causes and even

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K. Kvale, K. Zickfeld, T. Bruckner, K. J. Meissner, K. Tanaka, and A. J. Weaver

for marine carbonate species that are given as functions of the seawater temperature ( Millero 1995 ; Millero et al. 2006 ). A detailed description of the inorganic carbon ocean module can be found in Tanaka (2008 , ch. 2.1.2) and Tanaka et al. (2009b) ; briefly, it contains a four-layer box model where the first layer is in equilibrium with the atmosphere and the second through fourth layers represent the total anthropogenic contribution to ocean inorganic carbon inventory. A detailed

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Juan Declet-Barreto, Kim Knowlton, G. Darrel Jenerette, and Alexander Buyantuev

organic compounds and other ozone precursors in the lower atmosphere of cities ( Oke 1997 ), which, in some cases, is known to exacerbate heat-related mortality ( Filleul et al. 2006 ; Pattenden et al. 2010 ). The potential public health and emissions reductions benefits of mitigating extreme heat and UHIs is motivating the development of increased climate resilience in many cities across North America: many cities in the United States are responding to increases in the number of extreme heat days by

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Jessica Bolson and Kenneth Broad ). Methods for forecasting ENSO events have improved since the advent of dynamical seasonal climate prediction ( Cane et al. 1986 ; Wang et al. 2009 ). Because of both increased ocean monitoring and observation [associated with the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program] and to improvements in coupled ocean–atmosphere climate modeling, SCF skill has improved since around the end of the twentieth century ( Wang et al. 2009 ; Smith et al. 2012 ). However

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Samuel J. Childs, Russ S. Schumacher, and Stephen M. Strader

atmosphere for severe weather but also the numerous socioeconomic factors that affect the public’s ability to receive and respond to warning messages, as well as cope with the impacts ( Changnon et al. 2000 ; Pielke and Mills 2005 ; Bouwer 2011 ; Ashley et al. 2014 ; Visser et al. 2014 ; Strader et al. 2017 ). These societal factors also influence the evolution of population and development patterns and thus the number of people exposed to tornadoes and severe hailstorms. This research aims to

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Gregory G. Garner and Anne M. Thompson

, which is then adjusted according to information at hand. b. Air quality and decision making 1) Ozone and the air quality index Ozone is an abundant oxidant in the atmosphere. Near-surface ozone, however, has been extensively studied and found to be a harmful pollutant ( Lippmann 1989 ; Wright et al. 1990 ; Berry et al. 1991 ; Chen et al. 2007 ). This ozone is produced by the photolysis of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) ( Seinfeld and Pandis 2006 ). NO x

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Jase Bernhardt

; Aryal et al. 2014 ; Ifejika Speranza et al. 2010 ; Shaffer 2014 ) and the continued popularity of the Old Farmer’s Almanac and similar publications. f. Insight into microclimatic variability and annual variations in weather A diary written by a nearby farmer, also during 1886, can be used to corroborate Herman Smith’s accounts from 1886. Henry Cadmus Olney, a middle-aged farmer in Naples, New York, kept a diary similar in spirit to Herman Smith, with daily references to weather conditions and

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