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David A. R. Kristovich, Eugene Takle, George S. Young, and Ashish Sharma

. Different types of crops are planted over regions tens to hundreds of kilometers across, irrigation alters the surface moisture conditions sometimes in large swaths, and the forested areas give way to prairies. To give a full accounting of the research on all boundary layer features driven by mesoscale land surface changes would be beyond the space allocated for this chapter. Therefore, we provide information on research on common examples of atmospheric responses to the surface, starting from thermally

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Minghua Zhang, Richard C. J. Somerville, and Shaocheng Xie

, when integrated for multiple days, the temperature and moisture errors in the SCMs can build up, leading to the drift of SCMs into a very different climate regime that is no longer useful as a diagnostic. A common practice to remedy the drift is to reinitialize the SCM to conduct short periods of integrations and then concatenate them into a multiday long period. Another practice is to weakly apply relaxation terms to the model to observed temperature and humidity, in which case the temperature and

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Maike Ahlgrimm, Richard M. Forbes, Jean-Jacques Morcrette, and Roel A. J. Neggers

) were designed to reproduce the first-order impact of unresolved turbulence and convection on the vertical transport of heat, moisture, and momentum and their contribution to fractional cloudiness and condensate. This approach has led to demonstrable improvement in weather and climate predictions (e.g., Tiedtke 1989 ). The initial success inspired the further sophistication and development of these boundary layer schemes. Typically, schemes were developed and tested for certain cases based on

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Randy A. Peppler, Kenneth E. Kehoe, Justin W. Monroe, Adam K. Theisen, and Sean T. Moore

-of-change tests, but also automated statistical assessment of individual data streams for internal anomalies—this was done both to detect outliers and to identify instrument failure. In each case, flags were created to notify instrument operators and data users of the issues. Some statistical assessment was accomplished using a Bayesian dynamic linear model. Early applications of these checks were made for the detection of moisture on radiometer domes, and for the detection of signal attenuation, side

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Chih-Pei Chang, Mong-Ming Lu, and Hock Lim

development of the cyclone was traced back by Vissa et al. (2013) to cold surge–induced heavy rainfall episodes at the southern Gulf of Tonkin coast. The southward progression of the surge led to the intensification of deep convection on the Vietnamese coast and interaction with Typhoon Peipah, which entered the South China Sea from the western Pacific. Typhoon Peipah transported convective cloud clusters, moisture, and westward momentum to enhance the deep convection cells over the Vietnamese coast

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Isaac M. Held

influential steady-state model of Gill (1980) demonstrated that realistic simulation of the zonally asymmetric component of the tropical flow, both its rotational and divergent components, could be obtained by simply linearizing the response to prescribed latent heating about a state of rest. However, precipitation in the tropics is balanced to first approximation by low-level convergence of moisture rather than local evaporation. So moisture convergence, it seems, is controlled in large part by the

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David A. Randall, Cecilia M. Bitz, Gokhan Danabasoglu, A. Scott Denning, Peter R. Gent, Andrew Gettelman, Stephen M. Griffies, Peter Lynch, Hugh Morrison, Robert Pincus, and John Thuburn

carries out exchanges with all of the other components. The air, water, and ice are in constant motion. In the atmospheric component of an ESM, the adiabatic terms of the equation of motion, the thermodynamic equation, and the continuity equations for dry air, moisture, and chemical species are solved on a three-dimensional grid 1 using what is called a “dynamical core.” 2 The horizontal and vertical grid spacings determine the spatial “resolution” of the model. This chapter includes an overview

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D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, and H. E. Revercomb

moisture profiles from two sondes from different calibration batches. These dual launches suggested that the bias was to first order height independent, suggesting that the sonde data could be corrected by the use of a single-height independent scale factor. [The height-independent nature of the radiosonde humidity calibration bias was noted earlier by Ferrare et al. (1995) , although the dataset at the time was not large enough to posit a hypothesis on the reason for the bias.] These findings agreed

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conjunction with the operation of the network will be routine measurement of surface reflectivity surrounding the sites; regular soil moisture sampling. Aircraft-borne operational and campaign measurements In addition to the complement of fixed instruments that will be placed at the permanent sites, the ARM research program will require additional instruments that will be used on both an operational and a campaign basis. An important activity at the permanent sites will be the routine overflight of

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D. L. Sisterson, R. A. Peppler, T. S. Cress, P. J. Lamb, and D. D. Turner

field campaigns designed to support the estimation of large-scale vertical motion and temperature and moisture tendencies due to horizontal advection (appendix B; U.S. Department of Energy 1996 ; Zhang et al. 2016 , chapter 24). In particular, the SGP SCM data were intended to permit investigation of a wide range of site-specific questions: What processes control the formation, evolution, and dissipation of cloud systems? What relative roles do the advection of air mass properties and variation in

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