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Stanley G. Benjamin, John M. Brown, Gilbert Brunet, Peter Lynch, Kazuo Saito, and Thomas W. Schlatter

provide customized service to particular industries. They started private forecasting services for individual clients or took forecasting positions with industry. Aviation was an obvious source of employment for meteorologists, and several of the airlines formed weather units. Among the better known were Pan American, TWA, Northwest (later part of Delta), American, and United. By 1942, 17 airlines operated weather offices in North America, also including Braniff, Capital, Chicago and Southern

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Ronald B. Smith

. In the eastern United States, the Appalachians enhance precipitation from the Carolinas northward to New York and Vermont. Fig . 20-30. U.S. annual precipitation (in.) using the PRISM interpolation method. (Copyright 2015 PRISM Climate Group, Oregon State University.) Fig . 20-31. GOES-West TIR image of a Pacific frontal cyclone hitting the west coast of North America (source: NOAA). In flat terrain, meteorological radar has revolutionized quantitative precipitation measurement. Radar has great

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Steven Hanna, Mark Askelson, Marshall Shepherd, Mariana A. Fragomeni, Neil Debbage, and Bradford Johnson

conditions. Quantifying the changes expected under projected future climate conditions is primarily based on data dynamically downscaled from global climate models by using regional climate models. Such studies have been accomplished over northern Europe by Pryor et al. (2005 , 2012a ), Hueging et al. (2013) , and Nolan et al. (2014) . Expected changes in wind speed over North America have also been quantified ( Pryor and Barthelmie 2011 ; Pryor et al. 2012b , c ; Haupt et al. 2016 ), including

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Ted S. Cress and Douglas L. Sisterson

North Atlantic Ocean: marine stratus; transition between marine stratus and broken cloud fields; high specific humidity North Slope of Alaska (NSA): large seasonal variations in surface properties; distinct surface properties from other locales Gulf Stream off eastern North America, extending eastward: extreme values and variation in surface heat fluxes; marine stratus clouds; altostratus clouds; mature cyclonic storms; genesis region for cumulonimbus and widespread layered clouds associated with

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Allison McComiskey and Richard A. Ferrare

, doi: 10.1126/science.255.5043.423 . Delamere , J. , and Coauthors , 2008 : Shortwave spectral radiative closure studies at the ARM Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains site. Proc. 18th ARM Science Team Meeting, ARM-CONF-2008 , Norfolk, VA, U.S. Department of Energy. [Available online at .] Delene , D. J. , and J. A. Ogren , 2002 : Variability of aerosol optical properties at four North American surface

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Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Faisal Hossain, L. Ruby Leung, Nate McDowell, Matthew Rodell, Francisco J. Tapiador, F. Joe Turk, and Andrew Wood

; van Dijk et al. 2014 ; Gelaro et al. 2017 ; Zhang et al. 2018 ). Fig . 25-7. Optimized annual-mean fluxes (1000 km 3 yr −1 ) for North America (including Greenland), South America, Africa, Eurasia, the islands of Australasia and Indonesia, mainland Australia, and Antarctica: precipitation (blue), evapotranspiration (red), runoff (green), and annual amplitude of terrestrial water storage (yellow). The background grayscale image shows GRACE-based amplitude (max minus min) of the annual cycle of

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David A. R. Kristovich, Eugene Takle, George S. Young, and Ashish Sharma

larger scale than, those extending from Chesapeake and Delaware Bays during similar conditions, a result in keeping with the scale difference between the meanders and bays. For the Gulf Stream, these meander-driven cloud bands occur only during that portion of spring when the land–sea temperature difference in New England and the mid-Atlantic coast is small, rendering the Gulf Stream SST front the effective thermal coast of North America. Fig . 19-2. AVHRR channel-4 infrared image from 0713 UTC 8 Apr

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Robert A. Houze Jr.

. One exception appeared when, in 1883, at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Minneapolis, Minnesota, University of Iowa physicist Gustavus Hinrichs gave the first known description of the straight-line winds behind gust fronts, which are a common feature of MCSs moving across the plains states of the midwestern United States. He found that these gust fronts extended over tens to hundreds of kilometers. 1 He formally published his work in a two-part article in

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S. A. Ackerman, S. Platnick, P. K. Bhartia, B. Duncan, T. L’Ecuyer, A. Heidinger, G. Skofronick-Jackson, N. Loeb, T. Schmit, and N. Smith

(GOME) was launched in 1995 and measured ultraviolet and visible wavelengths over a large spectral range (240–790 nm) and with high enough spectral resolution (0.2–0.4 nm) to retrieve trace gases such as NO 2 , formaldehyde (HCHO), ozone, and bromine monoxide (BrO) in both the stratosphere and troposphere ( Burrows et al. 1999 ). Despite GOME’s coarse spatial resolution (40 × 320 km 2 ), the first global maps captured elevated levels of NO 2 over the industrial regions of Asia, North America, and

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Andrew J. Heymsfield, Martina Krämer, Anna Luebke, Phil Brown, Daniel J. Cziczo, Charmaine Franklin, Paul Lawson, Ulrike Lohmann, Greg McFarquhar, Zbigniew Ulanowski, and Kristof Van Tricht

cloud coverage climatology has been derived from a large set of cloud observations collected over decades from observations at the ground and from ships ( Hahn and Warren 2007 ; see Fig. 2-1 ). The statistics indicate that the coverage is about 30% over North America and Asia, of the same order over parts of Europe that are not blocked by lower cloud, is in the 15%–20% range over South America, and as high as 50% over equatorial regions of Africa, diminishing toward 10% in the southernmost regions

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