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B-J. Sohn, Seung-Hee Ham, and Ping Yang

properties of these clouds are known. The DCCs that overshoot the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) can be identified on the basis of a criterion specified in terms of infrared brightness temperature, and the characteristic optical properties of the selected DCCs can be determined. Furthermore, the inferred optical property information can be employed to simulate the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances on the basis of state-of-the-art radiative transfer modeling capabilities. If these results are able to

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Benjamin H. Cole, Ping Yang, Bryan A. Baum, Jerome Riedi, Laurent C.-Labonnote, Francois Thieuleux, and Steven Platnick

with Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar ( PARASOL ) multiangle polarized reflectance measurements. The adding–doubling model of de Haan et al. (1987) is employed to simulate the polarized reflectance at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The single-scattering properties of the ice crystals were taken from a new database that provides the spectrally consistent optical properties of ice particles from ultraviolet to far

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Andrew K. Heidinger and Michael J. Pavolonis

property estimation by estimating ϵ c using an optical depth retrieval performed at 0.63 μ m (VIS) and using the value of ϵ c to estimate T c from the 11- μ m (IR) radiance. During the night, only the IR radiance is used. These approaches perform very differently for optically thin cloud. The main benefit of the split-window approach relative to the ISCCP approach is that it delivers consistent performance for all solar illumination conditions (including night) and offers an improvement to the

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Julia Marshall, Ulrike Lohmann, W. Richard Leaitch, Nicole Shantz, Lisa Phinney, Desiree Toom-Sauntry, and Sangeeta Sharma

° and 180° ( Carrico et al. 1998 ). The direct aerosol effect is determined by the optical properties of the aerosol particles, which are dependent upon the size, shape, and composition of the particles and the wavelength of the incident light. Measurements of the aerosol optical properties through the use of an integrating nephelometer or a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) are unable to apportion these effects into the contributions from individual chemical species ( Anderson et al. 1999

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Sungwook Hong and Inchul Shin

is the small-scale roughness, is the wavelength, and θ is the view angle. 3. Data and methods a. Small-scale roughness retrieval In general, calculation of specular reflectivity at a given frequency and incidence angle using the Fresnel equation requires a priori information on the surface. In many cases, the dielectric property of the surface is not known because of the variety, heterogeneity, and complexity of the surface component and physical state. To use the observed polarization

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S. A. Young, C. M. R. Platt, R. T. Austin, and G. R. Patterson

Introduction The effects of clouds on the earth’s radiation budget are still little known and understood only approximately. For example, Le Treut et al. (1994) show that two different cloud parameterizations for midlevel clouds give cloud solar and infrared radiative forcings that both differ by up to 20 W m −2 in some regions. In a survey of GCMs, Browning (1994) listed cloud cover and optical properties as among the highest stated priorities for GCM development. Basically, cloud

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Philip B. Russell and Gerald W. Grams

SF. PTEm~l;.~1975 PHILIP B. RUSSELl. AND GERAI. D W. GRAMS 1037Application of Soil Dust Optical Properties in Analytical Models of Climate Change PHILIP B. RUSSELL Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Cahf. 94025 GER^Ln W. GRA~4SNational Cenler for A tmospherlc Research? J~oulder, Colo. 80303(Manuscript received 19 August 1974, in revised form 3 February 1975

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Peter Chýylek, Peter Damiano, Dat Ngo, and R. G. Pinnick

1210 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOOY -OLUM~31 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCEPolynomial Approximation of the Optical Properties of Water Clouds in the 8-12-~m Spectral Region PETR CH'~LEK* AND PETER DAMIANOAtmospheric Science Program, Department of Physics and Oceanography, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada DAT l",l C~Department of

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Ashwin Mahesh, Von P. Walden, and Stephen G. Warren

Introduction The climate of the Antarctic Plateau, like everywhere else on the earth, is strongly affected by clouds, and the clouds are, in turn, affected by other meteorological variables. The radiative effects of clouds are determined by the clouds' vertical location, optical thickness, and particle sizes. Radiation measurements correspondingly can be used to infer these properties. We use longwave emission spectra measured at the surface ( Walden et al. 1998 ) to infer cloud-base heights

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Teruyuki Nakajima, Tadahiro Hayasaka, Akiko Higurashi, Gen Hashida, Naser Moharram-Nejad, Yahya Najafi, and Hamzeh Valavi

AUGUST 1996 NAK AJIMA ET AL. 1265Aerosol Optical Properties in the Iranian Region Obtained by Ground-Based Solar Radiation Measurements in the Summer of 1991 TERUYUKI NAKAJIMACenter for Climate System Research, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, JapanTADAHIRO HAYASAKA, AKIKO HIG~JRASHI, AND GEN HASH1DA Faculty of Science, Tohoku

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