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Andrés Antico, Olivier Marchal, Lawrence A. Mysak, and Françoise Vimeux

lacks a land–ice component and associated climate processes (e.g., the land–ice albedo feedback and the effect of the ice sheet elevation on surface air temperature). The differences could also be related to the absence of other climatic processes in the model such as changing winds, terrestrial vegetation–albedo feedback, and varying concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is also important to note that our model only simulates changes at the planetary scale. Thus, for instance, we

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Y-C. Zhang and W. B. Rossow

velocity and to derive the total annual mean transport by the whole atmosphere–ocean system from the net radiative flux at the top of atmosphere (TOA). Then the oceanic energy transport is estimated from the difference between total transport and the atmospheric transport (e.g., Oort and Vonder Haar 1976 ; Peixoto and Oort 1992 ; Trenberth and Solomon 1994 ; see other references in section 5a ). This method is called the planetary energy-balance method by Carissimo et al. (1985) . The reason to

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Fei Xie, Xin Zhou, Jianping Li, Quanliang Chen, Jiankai Zhang, Yang Li, Ruiqiang Ding, Jiaqing Xue, and Xuan Ma

anomalies varies considerably for different locations of the primary heating source. The IPWP Niño and Niña events and ENSO events affect the atmosphere differently because they drive anomalous deep convection in the troposphere at different locations. IPWP Niño excites deep convection over the IPWP region, but El Niño favors convection over the equatorial central Pacific. This difference is likely to correspond to different responses of the equatorial planetary waves. To elucidate the responses of the

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John D. Horel and Carlos R. Mechoso

599--, 1985b: Persistence of wintertime 500 mb height anomaliesover the central Pacific. Mon. Wea, Rev., 113, 2043-2048.~, and J. M. Wallace, 1981: Planetary-scale atmospheric phe nomena associated with the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 813-829.Hoskins, B. J., and D. Karoly, 1981: The steady linear response of a spherical atmosphere to thermal and orographic foming. J. Atrnos. Sci., 1179-1196.Julian, P. R., and R. M. Chervin, 1978: A study of the Southern Oscillation and

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Beth Chertock and Y. C. Sud

procedures used to processthe data are outlined by Chertock (1989), and detailsare given by Kyle et al. (1985). The third and finalterm is the net amount of solar radiation absorbed byatmospheric constituents. This information cannot beobtained from existing direct measurements; therefore,it is obtained theoretically. The planetary atmosphereis modeled as a clear-sky atmosphere positioned abovean effective cloud layer, using plane-parallel theory and562

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Judah Cohen, Mathew Barlow, Paul J. Kushner, and Kazuyuki Saito

stratosphere and progresses downward into the troposphere, where it persists for several weeks. The stratosphere–troposphere annular-mode events are always preceded by an anomalous lower-stratospheric planetary wave activity flux, but robust lower-tropospheric wave activity signatures of these events are more difficult to find ( Polvani and Waugh 2004 ). This is because the troposphere is inherently more variable than the stratosphere and because the stratosphere is capable of generating downward

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Shuoyi Ding, Bingyi Wu, and Wen Chen

and barotropic Rossby wave response to stratospheric vortex variability . J. Atmos. Sci. , 66 , 902 – 914 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JAS2862.1 . 10.1175/2008JAS2862.1 Charney , J. G. , and G. Drazin , 1961 : Propagation of planetary-scale disturbances from the lower into the upper atmosphere . J. Geophys. Res. , 66 , 83 – 109 , https://doi.org/10.1029/JZ066i001p00083 . 10.1029/JZ066i001p00083 Chen , H. W. , F. Zhang , and R. B. Alley , 2016a : The robustness of

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Nambath K. Balachandran and David Rind

between planetary waves, the mean circulation and gravity wave drag. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 371-386.Rottman, G. J., 1988: Observations of solar UV and EUV variability. Adv. Space Res., 8, 53-66. , T. N. Woods, and T. P. Sparn, 1993: Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment, 1, Instrument design and operation. J. Geophys. Res., 98, 10 667-10 677.Salby, M. L., and D. J. Shea, 1991: Correlations between solar activity and the atmosphere: An unphysical explanation. J. Geophys

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Clara Deser

Ocean. The linear drag parameterization of kinetic energy dissipation in the planetary boundary layer is widely used in simplified models ofthe tropical atmosphere, and in numerous observational studies of the surface momentum balance. Climatologicalseasonal-mean fields of sea level pressure and surface wind from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere DataSet are used to calculate the pressure gradient, Coriolis, and acceleration terms in the momentum budget;friction is derived as a residual. It is

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Jeffrey Shaman and Eli Tziperman

1. Introduction Studies of atmospheric planetary wave dynamics date back to their first description by Carl-Gustav Rossby (e.g., Rossby 1939 ). These waves are responsible for a substantial portion of the large-scale communication, or teleconnection, of remotely forced variability around the planet. Synoptic variability, jet stream meanderings, and large-scale climate patterns [e.g., the Pacific–North American (PNA) pattern] have all been described in the context of Rossby waves. In particular

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