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Ikrom Artikov, Stacey J. Hoffman, Gary D. Lynne, Lisa M. Pytlik Zillig, Qi Hu, Alan J. Tomkins, Kenneth G. Hubbard, Michael J. Hayes, and William Waltman

forecasts of various kinds will influence farmer decisions and 2), for those being influenced, to predict the degree of the influence. These predictions are related empirically to an integrated combination of variables suggested by theoretical considerations in social psychology and behavioral economics. 2. Theoretical and empirical models Recall the theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen 1985 , 1991 ) in the companion paper by Hu et al. (2006) : where A is action, I is intention, and f is a

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Gary L. Achtemeier

348JOURNAL. OF APPLIED METEOROLOGYVOLUME 18Planned Weather Modification and the Severe WeatherThreat in the Central High PlainsGARY L. AcBTEMEIERJihnois SSa~e Wok, Survey, Urbana 61.l'Ol(Manuscript received 20 July 1978, in final form 15 November 1978)ABSTRACTOperational and experimental convective cloud-seeding projects are often planned without regard to thenumber of seeding-opportunity days that can be lost because of the need to suspend operations during thethreat of severe weather. June

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Worth D. Nowlin Jr.

The status of the United States planning activities for the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) for 1988 is presented at length in this article. The following six topics are emphasized: 1) Structure and general planning activities; 2) Summary of projected 1988 meetings; 3) Numerical modeling; 4) Data management; 5) Technology development; and 6) Observation and analysis components. Part 6 is divided into eight subsections that include: a) Satellite measurements; b) WOCE Hydrographic Program (WHP); c) Global Sea-Level Program; d) WOCE velocity measurements; e) Core Project 1 surface-layer studies; f) Global atmospheric-ocean exchanges; g) Core Project 3 studies; and h) analysis and interpretation projects.

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Peter E. Kraght

Safety, passenger comfort, and operating economy require that commercial airline flights be preflight planned. There are many route and altitude combinations between origination and destination. Manual selection of the best is tedious, costly in man-hours, and never perfect. A digital computer can do the job quickly, using few man-hours, with a higher order of perfection. American Airlines contracted with IBM to develop jointly a flight planning program for a 60,000 digit IBM 1620 computer. The program was placed into operation on 4 February 1962 and quickly expanded to produce 5000 lines of flight plans for over 200 trips daily. Operating cost savings are on the order of several million dollars annually. The program continuously surrounds an aircraft with a set of prognostic temperatures and winds valid by the craft's clocks at the plane's altitude. The program also selects the optimum route and the optimum altitude profile on the selected route. Flight plans on the optimum route at the optimum altitude are automatically delivered to the flight crew and the controlling dispatchers.

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Neda Kazemi, Maryam Sharifzadeh, and Mostafa Ahmadvand

( Borges et al. 2014a ). Among theoretical models that explain human behavior (attribution theory, bureaucracy theory, cognitive dissonance theory, technology acceptance model, theory of reasoned action, etc.; Lee 2006 ), this paper uses sociobehavioral constructs from the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to analyze factors affecting the orchardists’ frost-protection behavior. However, the main rationale behind choosing the TPB was to gain an understanding of the predictable nature of frost

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Graham M. Armstrong and Ralph J. Donaldson Jr.

376JOURNAL O~ APPLIEI) METEOROLOGY\T0LuME 8Plan Shear Indicator for Real-Time Doppler Radar Identificationof Hazardous Storm WindsGRAHAM M. ARMSTRONG AND RALPH j. DONALDSON, fR.Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Sudbuiy, MUSS.(Manuscript received 10 December 1968, in revised form 12 March 1969)ABSTRACTThe Plan Shear Indicator (['SI) is a new mode for display of meteorological Doppler radar informationwhich may prove to be valuable in identification of hazardous winds and turbulence in

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Ralph J. Donaldson Jr.

J~,NUARY1978 RALPH J. DONALDSON, JR. 39Observations of the Union City Tornadic Storm by Plan Shear Indicator RALPH J. DONALDSON, J~. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Mass. 01731(Manuscript received 14 December 1976, in final form 13 June 1977)ABSTRACT The storm which spawned the devastating Union City, Okla., tornado of 24 May 1973 was observed byDoppler Plan

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Barbara Casati, Abderrahmane Yagouti, and Diane Chaumont

2009, British Columbia has registered more than 200 excess deaths due to one week of high temperatures ( Kosatsky 2010 ). Another example comes from Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where 106 heat-related deaths were recorded after a 3-day heat event in July 2010 ( Bustinza et al. 2013 ). In response to EHE risks, several communities and countries have implemented Heat Alert and Response plans, in order to raise awareness of heat health risks among the general public, to help reduce heat-related morbidity

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Rachel E. Riley

1. Introduction Climate hazard risk assessments have been a required component of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Multihazard Mitigation Plan (HMP) since the Disaster Mitigation Act was passed in 2000 (Public Law 106-390). State, tribal, territorial, and local jurisdictions are required to have a FEMA-approved plan to receive certain types of nonemergency disaster assistance, including funding for mitigation projects ( FEMA 2019 ). Hazard mitigation is recognized as a wise

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Stephen D. Eckermann, James D. Doyle, P. Alex Reinecke, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Ronald B. Smith, David C. Fritts, and Andreas Dörnbrack

instruments on the National Science Foundation (NSF)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Gulfstream V research aircraft (NGV; Laursen et al. 2006 ). Yet this very lack of observational knowledge about gravity waves that spurred DEEPWAVE also complicated logistical planning for an NGV-based gravity wave measurement campaign: for example, identifying the best site and time of year; designing near-real-time flight-planning strategies to locate, intercept, and observe specific aspects of gravity

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