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Steven K. Esbensen, Jan-Hwa Chu, Wen-wen Tung, and Robert G. Fovell

western North Pacific as the site for a tropical GARP field program, in agreement with recommendations of several other groups. In December 1969, Michio attended the GARP Joint Organizing Committee (JOC) planning meeting held in Miami for the First Tropical Experiment. At this critical moment in Professor Yanai’s research and international activity, student riots broke out at the University of Tokyo and lasted for a year. Radical students influenced by China’s Great Cultural Revolution and Berkeley

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Taroh Matsuno

global-scale weather prediction and discussed how to realize it. This led to the establishment of the Global Atmospheric Research Programme (GARP), to be implemented by international cooperation. As part of its participation, Japan (JMA) decided to launch one of five Geostationary Meteorological Satellites designed to survey the whole globe starting from the First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE) period, 1977–78. From an early stage (1967), Yanai-san worked actively to contribute to the planning of GARP

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Randy A. Peppler, Kenneth E. Kehoe, Justin W. Monroe, Adam K. Theisen, and Sean T. Moore

Environmental Satellites (GOES) link each hour. Each day, plots of these hourly data were generated and posted on a website at PSU. Initially, this process was carried out by the site scientists but eventually transitioned to site operators. The plots proved useful for identifying gross errors in the data, which were fed back to site operations’ technicians, allowing them to plan on-site repair visits. Once a full TWP dataset was delivered to the DMF, the site scientists produced daily data graphics and

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Keith L. Seitter, Jinny Nathans, and Sophie Mankins

study of lightning and forest fires in the northern Rocky Mountain region that was published in Monthly Weather Review ( Varney 1926 ), or read about plans for free balloon flights to measure upper-air meteorological variables by Leroy Meisinger (1924) only to learn three months later of his tragic death in an accident during one of those flights ( AMS 1924 ). Over time, new observations and other research results were published in BAMS in increasing numbers, and by 1944 it was not uncommon to

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John E. Walsh, David H. Bromwich, James. E. Overland, Mark C. Serreze, and Kevin R. Wood

vehicles for sea and land transport provided new opportunities for measurements, including below the surface. Altogether a total of 94 meteorological stations operated in the Arctic for at least part of the second IPY ( Laursen 1959 ). This period provided the first systematic upper-air measurements in the Arctic by radiosonde and pilot balloons. Plans for a network of Antarctic stations never came to fruition because of the global financial crisis of the 1930s. In the summer of 1932, the Russian

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D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, and H. E. Revercomb

parameterizations used in climate models. Although temperature observations are just as critical to advance ARM science, the uncertainties in temperature observations were considered smaller and less important and, consequently, received less attention in the earlier days of the program. 2. The earliest days In the early years of the program, the IRF was arguably the most organized working group because 1) the Spectral Radiance Experiment (SPECTRE) science objectives were a large part of the ARM science plan

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Russ E. Davis, Lynne D. Talley, Dean Roemmich, W. Brechner Owens, Daniel L. Rudnick, John Toole, Robert Weller, Michael J. McPhaden, and John A. Barth

explores coastal ocean observing systems, and section 9 examines Arctic Ocean science. In many ways, large organized experiments are similar to Ocean Observing Systems except they have planned ends. We also discuss two important early experiments and an Ocean Observing System. Complex mesoscale patterns in satellite temperature imagery, strong subsurface flows discovered by direct measurement, and mesoscale eddies in models all motivated the milestone 1971–73 Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (MODE

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Greg M. McFarquhar, Darrel Baumgardner, and Andrew J. Heymsfield

, M. , and Coauthors , 2016 : Cloud chamber experiments on the origin of ice crystal complexity in cirrus clouds . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 16 , 5091 – 5110 , doi: 10.5194/acp-16-5091-2016 . 10.5194/acp-16-5091-2016 Strapp , J. W. , and Coauthors , 2016 : The High Ice Water Content (HIWC) study of deep convective clouds: Report on science and technical plan. FAA Rep. DOT/FAA/TC-14/31, 105 pp. [Available online at www.tc.faa.gov/its/worldpac/techrpt/tc14-31.pdf .] Takano , Y. , and K

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Branko Kosović, Scott W. McIntosh, Fei Chen, Kathleen Miller, Marshall Shepherd, Marcus Williams, and Sheldon Drobot

yield forecasts to aid in price negotiations with intermediaries. At the end of 2016, 374 Earth observing satellites were operational ( Pixalytics 2017 ). The main instruments useful for agriculture and food security are classified either as multispectral or microwave; however, planned hyperspectral sensors have the potential to revolutionize remote sensing contributions to food security as many spectral indices focus on narrow bands (e.g., Harris Geospatial Solutions 2017 ) . An important

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Stanley G. Benjamin, John M. Brown, Gilbert Brunet, Peter Lynch, Kazuo Saito, and Thomas W. Schlatter

United States, with takeoff to touchdown taking 20 h ( Streever 2016 ). In their early years, commercial airlines had little weather information, no preplanned flight plans, and suffered increasing accidents, including a Trans World Airlines (TWA) crash in 1935 that killed U.S. Senator Bronson Cutting (from New Mexico). Pan American Airways was the first airline to employ meteorologists, starting in 1927. Six additional airlines took the same step by 1937 ( Fahey et al. 2016 ). NWP did not begin to

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