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R. W. Saunders, G. Brogniez, J. C. Buriez, R. Meerkötter, and P. Wendling

des Sciences et Technique de Lille, Villeneuve dStscq, France R. MEERKOTTER AND P. WENDLINGDeutsche Forschungsanstalt fiir Lufi und Raumfahrt, Institut fiir Physik der Atmospha're, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany(Manuscript received 29 April 1991, in final form 28 October 1991) ABSTRACT During the 1989 intensive field campaign of the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE) over the North Sea,broadband radiative fluxes were measured in, above, and below cirrus cloud by

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J. P. Boyle

,net is net solar flux (incorporating sea surface albedo and underwater backscattered solar radiation), and F LWR,net is the net longwave radiative flux. Positive fluxes are upward, out of the water, and negative fluxes are downward. The net solar flux is always downward. Here, α c , α b are flux-plate solar response coefficients. They are a measure of the solar radiation absorption characteristics for each flux plate. In this model, nighttime fluxes measured by each flux plate should be the same

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Steven P. Anderson and Mark F. Baumgartner

1. Introduction The increased demand by climate research programs for accurate estimates of air–sea fluxes made from ships and buoys has led to an increased demand for accurate surface air temperature measurements. Radiative heating of the temperature sensor element is a significant source of error in these measurements. In general, radiative heating errors will increase with increasing solar radiation and decrease with increasing wind speed ( Fig. 1 ). Ideally, a continuously aspirated

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Pankajakshan Thadathil, Yasuhiro Sugimori, and Masatoshi Akiyama

flux values the possible uncertainties in the ground-based climatologicalestimate were from 40 to 80 W m-2. This increase in uncertainties for satellite-derived fluxes was found to bedue to remote sensing error. By incorporating the satellite-measured radiance and atmospheric radiative transfermodel in the estimation of the radiation budget, the total error bar can be reduced to 30-80 W m-2 from 5090 W m-2, showing that satellite-derived heat fluxes are having accuracies better than (or equal to

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Jonathan D. Nash, Matthew H. Alford, and Eric Kunze

the background geostrophic flow. In a steady-state balance, the energy flux represents transport of energy from sources Q + to sinks Q − . In the context of the global internal wave field, recent evidence indicates that sources can lie thousands of kilometers away from sinks ( Dushaw et al. 1995 ; Cummins et al. 2001 ; Nash et al. 2004b ; Alford 2003 ), consistent with altimetric observations of the mode-1 internal tide radiating far northward from the Hawaiian ridge ( Ray and Mitchum

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C. W. Fairall, A. B. White, J. B. Edson, and J. E. Hare

–sea interaction group has developed a ship-mountable system for measuring near-surface and ABL processes to support several ongoing research programs in marine meteorology and climate. The system presently consists of seven components assembled from a combination of commercial and in-house sensors: bulk meteorological variables and radiative fluxes; direct air–sea turbulent fluxes; a lidar ceilometer for cloud-base height and aerosol profiles; a 915-MHz radar with RASS (radio acoustic sounding system

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Benjamin D. Reineman, Luc Lenain, Nicholas M. Statom, and W. Kendall Melville

systems to measure momentum and energy fluxes within the atmospheric boundary layer. We have tested and verified instrumentation with ground-vehicle-based tests alongside research-standard instrumentation, with engineering flight tests over land and with low-altitude (down to 30 m) flight tests over water. Coincident measurements of turbulent and radiative fluxes, topography, and multispectral imagery make this system a very useful tool for terrestrial atmospheric boundary layer research. For marine

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F. Miskolczi

608 JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 11Modeling of Downward Surface Longwave Flux Density for G~obal Change Applications and Comparison with Pyrgeon~eter IV~eas~rements F. MISKOLCZIUniversity of Maryland, Department of Meteorology. College Park, Maryland8 October 1992 and 28 June 1993ABSTRACT The success of satellite monitoring of global climate change depends on the ability

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S. P. Burns, J. Sun, A. C. Delany, S. R. Semmer, S. P. Oncley, and T. W. Horst

1. Introduction Increased interest in the heat balance of the earth's atmosphere has led several investigators to reevaluate the accuracy of various instruments used to make such measurements. One such instrument that has recently been particularly scrutinized is the Eppley Laboratory Precision Infrared Radiometer (Model PIR), a pyrgeometer that is commonly used to measure longwave irradiance (i.e., radiative flux through the horizontal plane). Early work and analyses of Eppley PIRs can be

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C. Ruckstuhl and R. Philipona

1. Introduction The determination of the surface radiation budget is a very important task in climatology. Accurate measurements of downward and upward fluxes are needed for observations of greenhouse and cloud radiative effects and their possible changes. Small changes in radiative fluxes may, because of feedback effects, cause major influences on the earth’s climate (e.g., Ohmura et al. 1998 ; Philipona 2002 ; Philipona et al. 2004 ). The surface radiation budget is commonly measured using

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