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Gerhard Smiatek, Severin Kaspar, and Harald Kunstmann

periods 1961–90 (circles), 2021–50 (triangles), and 2070–99 (squares). Additional adverse effects on regional water availability are expected from warming-induced changes to evapotranspiration. On the other hand, pan evaporation observations in various countries show steadily decreasing values for the past 50 years ( Barnett et al. 2005 ). Ohmura and Wild (2002) point out that a hemisphere evaporates more in winter than in summer, and there are large differences between the evaporation from land and

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Natasa Skific, Jennifer A. Francis, and John J. Cassano

-Arctic change is positive across the SOM, the regional values decrease in some clusters. These reductions account for the negative thermodynamic changes in the Barents and Kara Seas. The fourth term in Eq. (1) describes the portion of total change arising from combined dynamic and thermodynamic effects. In a physical sense, this could arise from a change in a thermodynamic variable, such as atmospheric moisture content, that results from a particular circulation regime occurring more or less frequently

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Wei Zhao, Zhongmin Hu, Qun Guo, Genan Wu, Ruru Chen, and Shenggong Li

). Areas with grassland productivity significantly constrained by precipitation and relative humidity accounted for 40.1% and 34.2%, respectively, of all significant areas, much more than air temperature (18.8%) and solar radiation (6.4%) ( Fig. 2b ). Zones with more contribution (grids with significant effects) of climatic factors spread from the northeast to southwest along the regional boundary. In general, the explanatory power of GDM showed that precipitation had the largest contribution (24

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Ting Meng, Richard Carew, Wojciech J. Florkowski, and Anna M. Klepacka

-moment models using cumulative and intrasectional climate variables, respectively. Another test undertaken was to determine if the panel data have fixed or random regional effects. The Sargan–Hansen statistics test ( Table 5 ) rejects the null hypothesis that the coefficients from the random effects are consistent with the coefficients from the fixed effects model. The test result indicates the existence of fixed effects that were used in the estimation of the mean function. We tested for heteroscedasticity

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Marie Ekström, Phaedon C. Kyriakidis, Adrian Chappell, and Philip D. Jones

all rainfall series with at least 12 consecutive months (3884 series), hence increasing the number of rainfall observations used for the rainfall estimation. The inclusion of the additional series is important, as restricting analysis to only those time series that are temporally complete could have detrimental effects to precipitation climatologies, as shown by Willmott et al. (1996) for the United States. b. Regionalization of temporal trend models At this stage, temporal trend coefficients

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Huimin Chen, Bingliang Zhuang, Jane Liu, Shu Li, Tijian Wang, Xiaodong Xie, Min Xie, Mengmeng Li, and Ming Zhao

1. Introduction Black carbon (BC) aerosols can significantly impact climate change at both regional and global scales via the direct, indirect, and snow albedo effects ( Twomey 1974 ; Albrecht 1989 ; Menon et al. 2002 ; Lau et al. 2006 ; Forster et al. 2007 ; Randles and Ramaswamy 2008 ; Zhuang et al. 2010 ; Wang et al. 2011 ; Wilcox 2012 ). The BC potential warming effect plays an important role in global and regional warming ( Myhre et al. 2013 ). The convergence and upward motion

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Federico Cassola, Massimiliano Burlando, Marta Antonelli, and Corrado F. Ratto

, Europe still remains the market leader with 48 545 MW of installed capacity, representing 65% of the global total. From a technical point of view, at present, wind energy is often conveniently integrated into regional electricity supply systems, but its intermittent character is not without consequences for many power systems yet. In contrast to conventional power generation, where energy input can be scheduled and regulated to be consistent with the national power supply system (PSS), wind energy is

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Jiazheng Lu, Li Li, Xunjian Xu, and Tao Feng

at meteorological observation stations, and there is still no reliable icing sensor than can work effectively under all expected climatic conditions ( Fikke 2009 ; Hosek et al. 2011 ). A complete, precise, and credible historical dataset is urgently needed for the study of icing events and icing climate research. The State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC; see Table 1 for expansions of key acronyms used in this paper) is responsible for the operation and maintenance of 26 provincial regional

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Maximiliano Viale and Mario N. Nuñez

precipitation events in the Andes is inferred by the recurrent downslope wind extending fully to the low-leeward side ( Table 6 ). Downslope wind (named “zonda” in South America; Norte et al. 2008 ; Seluchi et al. 2003 ) and associated föehn effects (i.e., a sharply increased dewpoint depression) were recorded north of 34°S by at least one (two) low-lee station(s) in 80% (67%) of 46 total heavy precipitation events. In addition, regional features can be noticed in Table 6 as the higher frequency of

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Haiming Xu, Yuqing Wang, and Shang-Ping Xie

that all of the modeled April–May rainfall in the La Plata River basin is due to the moisture transport by this LLJ. Without the Andes, there is virtually no rainfall in this region. 5. Summary and discussion a. Summary A regional atmospheric model is used to study the effects of the narrow and steep Andes on eastern Pacific climate. The model is capable of reproducing contrasting climatic conditions in the austral cold (August–October) and warm (March–May) seasons, as compared with TMI satellite

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