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John Kroll and Pearn P. Niiler

-dependent bottom friction to determine the effect of frictional dissipation. The following results are derived by our analysis. The regression angle of scatter plots for topography-dominatedwaves should be small and the preponderant direction of the waves determined by the sign. The groupvelocity directed up the slope possesses an absolute maximum which occurs at a relatively short period.The ability of a wave moving up a slope to overcome friction correlates with this group velocity. The energyflux

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Robert C. Beardsley, David C. Chapman, Kenneth H. Brink, Steven R. Ramp, and Ronald Schlitz

winter. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify possible annual variations in the NSFE79 moored currentand temperature data. Significant annual variations were found in the temperature field over the shelf andupper slope and in the low-frequency current variability over the shelf. No significant annual variation wasobserved in the alongshelf current over the shelf, however, suggesting that there is, at least on time scales ofone month and more, a continuous flow of shelf water into the

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D. W. Denbo and J. S. Allen

Experiment (CUE-II) in Denboand Allen, 1984, hereafter referred to as DA. In therotary EOF analysis of the CUE-II cross-shelf datasetfor the 0.25 cycles per day (cpd) frequency band, DAerroneously reported that no change in the relativemagnitudes of the first clockwise and anticlockwiseEOF amplitude existed in the cross-shelf direction. Infact, such a change does exist at Forsythia (53 km offshore) and thus raises the possibility, as pointed out byHsieh, that a second dynamical mode may be dominant

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Alicia R. Karspeck and Mark A. Cane

pattern ( Fig. 5 ). When the decadal residual PC analysis is restricted to either the first or the second epoch, the same spatial regression pattern is manifest. This shows that the decadal pattern is not just a reflection of the 1976–77 shift. The changes that took place in 1976 are spatially representive of the decadal pattern. The existence of a tropical decadal pattern in these TDA fields that is spatially and temporally consistent with SST data suggests that tropical oceanic decadal variability

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C. D. Winant and R. C. Beardsley

)] suggests pu = c + d*x~. (5)Estimates of CD in (2) and r in (3) may be computedfrom the parameters b and d, which in turn can b6determined by regression analysis. Since currentsand bottom stresses are not perfectly correlatedwith surface stresses (i.e., other motions exist whichare not forced by local winds), it is important tocompute regression slopes using surface stress asthe independent variable. The resulting slopeestimates are then not significantly dependent

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Eli Joel Katz

in October 1992. The sea surface height for each crossing is obtained from the MGDR records provided by NASA, with corrections applied as recommended ( Benada 1993 ) except for the tidal model. For the latter, a newer version of the Cartwright and Ray tidal model (updated by using an analysis of the first year of the T/P altimeter data; Ray 1996, personal communication) was used to replace the tide model provided. To smooth the data a little and to collocate all the crossings, a linear regression

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Zhao Jing, Ping Chang, Xuan Shan, Shengpeng Wang, Lixin Wu, and Jaison Kurian

. The color denotes the latitude. (d)–(f) As in (a)–(c), but derived from FORA-WNP30. To quantify the H-T amplitude relationship in the Kuroshio extension and Oyashio extension as well as their difference, we perform a regression analysis between mesoscale SSHA and SSTA: where denotes the SSTA, represents the SSHA, and the regression coefficient k measures the H-T amplitude relationship. Sensitivity tests suggest that including the intercept in the regression model does not have any

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H. M. van Aken

15AS= RaAT+ h lS~zz-Ra~ . (3)Fedorov and Plakhin (1975) and Fedorov (1978)stated that the linear regression between /~AS andaAT according to the regression equation I~AS = b'aAT + a (4)will give the regression parameter b' as an estimateof R. However, it is easy to see from (3) that ifh andATare correlated the estimate b' for R will be biased.Statistical analysis of a large number of temperatureinversions from the North Rockall Trough (vanAken, 1981

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Tobias Kukulka, Kara L. Law, and Giora Proskurowski

of −0.15 so that the observed dependence of N tow on I 0 is not an artifact due to correlated U 10 and I 0 . A linear regression analysis based on the empirical model yields a slope m = (2.3 ± 0.7) × 10 −3 (gray line), which indicates that higher surface concentrations are associated with greater surface heating (the number following the ± symbol denotes the 95% confidence interval, and I 0 and N tow are nondimensionalized by their respective units for the regression analysis). Note

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Scott C. Doney, Steve Yeager, Gokhan Danabasoglu, William G. Large, and James C. McWilliams

are neglected and therefore will contribute to the residual R . Figure 7 (bottom panel) shows the slope from linearly regressing the sum Q ′ + A ′ + E ′ + V  ′ on Δ H ′. Low values of this slope indicate that the resolved terms do not capture fully the variability in Δ H ′ and that the residual R is nonnegligible. Therefore, the following analysis is incomplete in certain isolated regions of the Southern and Arctic Oceans, in the central Indian Ocean, and at various near-coastal sites

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