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Mathew A. Barlow and Michael K. Tippett

1. Introduction The rivers of semiarid central Asia have an important role in local water resources, providing drinking water, hydropower, and irrigation for both subsistence and large-scale agriculture. The region is water stressed (e.g., Oki and Kanae 2006 ), and drought can have severe societal influences (e.g., Agrawala et al. 2001 ; Barlow et al. 2006 ). The two major rivers of the region, the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya, are primary feeders of the Aral Sea. The rivers have their

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David K. Ralston, W. Rockwell Geyer, and James A. Lerczak

1. Introduction Understanding the structure and variability of the salinity distribution in an estuary is critical to many ecological and engineering management decisions. The salinity distribution is governed by a balance between downstream advection of salt by river flow and upstream transport of salt by dispersive processes. These up-estuary fluxes can be divided into a subtidal component due to residual velocity and salinity and an oscillatory tidal component associated with correlations in

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H. Biemans, R. W. A. Hutjes, P. Kabat, B. J. Strengers, D. Gerten, and S. Rost

. (2004) showed inconsistencies between runoff data and three precipitation datasets for three large Siberian rivers. Their analysis suggests a poor quality of either the runoff or precipitation datasets, or both. Pavelsky and Smith (2006) used discharge observations of 198 arctic rivers to assess the quality of four global precipitation sets and concluded that observational datasets cover the trends significantly better than two reanalysis products. At global scale, however, Voisin et al. (2008

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Rhonalyn V. Macalalad, Roy A. Badilla, Olivia C. Cabrera, and Gerry Bagtasa

the Philippines ( Bagtasa 2017 ). High runoffs from intense rainfall coupled with a complex topography and small drainage areas expose a large portion of the population to a high risk of flooding. In the present study, we focus on the hydrological response characteristics of the Pampanga River basin (PRB) in the Philippines. The PRB is the Philippines’ fourth largest river basin located in the central plain of Luzon island in northern Philippines. The PRB lies within the longest contiguous lowland

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Rana Samuels, Alon Rimmer, Andreas Hartmann, Simon Krichak, and Pinhas Alpert

perfect records of reality, the ability of GCMs to modify their forcings make them a useful tool for connecting anthropogenic emissions and effects on precipitation and evaporation at large scales ( Déqué 2007 ). Although hydrological modules (precipitation, evaporation, land use) are also used within the GCMs, they are less reliable for analysis of surface and groundwater water balances in local river basins. The leading tools for these purposes are usually hydrological and agricultural models, used

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Thomas M. Hopson and Peter J. Webster

1. Introduction Accurate and timely forecasts of river flow have the potential of providing critical information for water resource management, agriculture practice optimization, and disaster mitigation. Nowhere is the need for such forecasts more urgent than in the Bangladesh delta that lies at the confluence of two of the largest river systems in the world: the Brahmaputra and the Ganges ( Fig. 1 ). Combined, these rivers can possess discharges of well over 100 000 m 3 s −1 . Once these

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Boris Orlowsky, Oliver Bothe, Klaus Fraedrich, Friedrich-Wilhelm Gerstengarbe, and Xiuhua Zhu

conditioned on the prescribed temperature trend. For demonstration purposes, we select the Yangtze River basin in central China. The climate of this region is complex and includes temperate inland, plateau, and monsoonal climatic regions. They are all transected by the Yangtze River, which provides a natural cross section through central China. Since it is one of the most important waterways of the world, reliable projections of its future climate are an important challenge. In the following, section 2

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Peter A. Bieniek, Uma S. Bhatt, Larry A. Rundquist, Scott D. Lindsey, Xiangdong Zhang, and Richard L. Thoman

1. Introduction Because Alaska lacks roads in rural areas, rivers serve as critical highways—on ice in winter and on water in summer—but are impassable during breakup. In winter, rivers are used as ice roads to reach remote sites for oil and gas exploration and mining operations, as well as to reach the next village. The timing of ice-free conditions, which is dictated largely by the onset of breakup, signals the end of transportation on the ice and the ice roads. The breakup of river ice can

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Byoung-Ju Choi and John L. Wilkin

1. Introduction Observations and numerical simulations have shown that local wind forcing significantly affects the dispersal of a river plume as it enters the coastal ocean ( Pullen and Allen 2000 ; Fong and Geyer 2001 ; García Berdeal et al. 2002 ; Janzen and Wong 2002 ; Whitney and Garvine 2006 ). This is particularly true of surface-advected plumes where the river outflow forms a thin layer riding on more dense shelf water, and consequently has diminished interaction with the bathymetry

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Thomas G. Almeida, David T. Walker, and April M. Warnock

1. Introduction Accurate river bathymetry characterization is crucial for river navigation and planning, allowing for safe passage of vessels and guiding channel maintenance operations. Knowledge of river bathymetry also enables hydrodynamic modeling of river flow, which is important to understanding all aspects of the riparian environment (e.g., for hydrology, ecology, and resource management). Recent advances in remote sensing techniques have spurred the development of a number of potential

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