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J. Cuxart, M. A. Jiménez, M. Telišman Prtenjak, and B. Grisogono

the locations of the AEMET surface weather stations. The straight lines indicate the vertical cross sections in Fig. 6 . The surface stations of Campos and Ses Salines are labeled with the letters C and S, respectively. The location where the balloons are launched is indicated with a letter B. Also shown are the ECMWF analysis for 0000 UTC 5 Jun 2010 for (b) 500-hPa geopotential and (c) surface pressure. In 1946 Jansà and Jaume (1946 , hereinafter JJ46) described the phenomenon on the island

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S. A. Yankofsky, Z. Levin, T. Bertold, and N. Sandlerman

fragments Cells suspended in saline were broken by exposureto ultrasound pulses of 20 s duration at 100 W in aBraun Labsonic sonifier. The standard procedurefollowed was three such pulses at 1 min intervals forheat dispersion. Sonicates were then filtered through0.45 ~zm pores in order to remove any residual particles of cell size or larger.3. Resultsa. Freezing spectra of different INA bacteria The five bacteria whose freezing spectra are givenin Fig. 1 include three yellow-pigmented isolates2x

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J. E. Jiusto, R. J. Pilié, and W. C. Kocmond

~ b=4.3i--, (7) Mwhere salt nucleus mass and molecular weight are givenby m~ and M, and i is the Van't Hoff dissociation factor. For sodium chloride particles, b~-~0.147 m~. Assumingfurther that temperature T= 20C, saline drop densityp0= 1.1 gm cm-a, and initial drop size r0<<r~, the generalequation (6) may be written as r~ = 192 (m,H)~'7, (8)for conditions characteristic of our laboratory

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Thomas E. Hoffer and Alice R. W. Presley

-13.Tabata, S., 1961: Temporal changes of salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen content of the weather station "P" in the Northeast Pacific Ocean and some of their determining factors. J. Fisheries Res. Board Can., 18, 1073-11:24. Weyl, P. K., 1968: The role of the oceans in climate change: A theory of the ice ages. Meteor. Monogr., 8, No. 30, 37-63. Yamamoto, G., and J. Kondo, 1964: Evaporation from Lake Towada. J, Meteor. $o~., Japan, Set. II, 42, 85-96.Detection of Chloride Ions in a

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R. K. Reed and W. P. Elliott

a basic understanding ofthe hydrologic cycle and the energetics of the atmosphere, but rainfall affects the salinity distribution ofthe oceans and consequently the mass distribution. Asrecently pointed out by Budyko (1974), there are stillmany uncertainties in oceanic rainfall estimates, andunequivocal statements about the amount and patternsover many oceanic regions cannot be made. One conclusion that has emerged (Tucker, 1961; Reed andElliott, 1973; Kilonsky and Ramage, 1976) is that

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Mark F. Hibberd

-layer temperature gradient of 0.01 K m-~ andprofiles taken 1 h apart, a vertical displacement of 100m over a depth of 400 m would produce an apparenttemperature flux of 0.1 K m s-~. Halving the time between the profiles would double this apparent flux. It is worth noting that the author first became awareof these difficulties when he used this technique to calculate buoyancy flux profiles from laboratory measurements of density profiles in a saline water tank analogof the CBL (Hibberd and Sawford 1994). In

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Joe R. Eagleman

. Wheat production in eight Kansas counties wasinvestigated in terms of rainfall received and theevapotranspiration rate from Eq. (3) during Septemberthrough June for the period 1945 to 1961. The countiesselected were those with substantial wheat acreageand which used very little irrigation and had thesmallest percentage of summer fallow wheat productionin comparison to continuously cropped dryland. Thecounties investigated were Barber, Dickinson, Harper,Kinganan, Meade, Saline, Sedgwick and Sumner

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I. N. Tang and H. R. Munkelwitz

present theoretical analysis. Further work is needed in order to elucidateand predict the complex nature of multicomponent aerosols.1. Introduction Ambient aerosols are frequently composed of.hygroscopic inorganic salts such as chlorides, sulfates, andnitrates in either pure or mixed forms. Such inorganicsalt aerosols exhibit the properties of deliquescence andefflorescence in air. The phase transformation from asolid particle to a saline droplet usually occurs spontaneously when the relative

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J. E. Overland, C. H. Pease, R. W. Preisendorfer, and A. L. Comiskey

balance per unit surface area (see Jessup, 1985) can be approximated as dHi dHw LiPi-~- + Tf) Fpw-~- Cw( Tw dH~ + ( 1 - F)pw ~ Cw (Tw - Tro) = CHpaCa l/a[(Tf - ra) + rl(es - 0.9ea)] + a(rfi - eara4) (2)wherePi, Pw, PaTf, Tw, TaTroFZidensity of saline ice, seawater and air, respectivelytemperature of saline ice at the freezingpoint, seawater and air, respectivelyaverage temperature of runoff leaving thevesselfraction of impinging seawater

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Edgar L. Andreas and Beniamin A. Cash

.(rs) - pc, i L, Op~s/cgT r~(1.7)depends primarily on the surface temperature Ts andweakly on the barometric pressure and the surface salinity. Here p~s is the saturation vapor density, and T istemperature. In essence, Bo, is what Thorn (1975')called the equilibrium Bowen ratio, though he did notevaluate: it necessarily at Ts. Andreas (1989a) subsequently extended Philip's result by showing that when Hs and Hc are both negative, Bo >~ Bo,(Ts). (1

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