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Shrinidhi Ambinakudige and Sami Khanal

; Masozera et al. 2007 ) that have analyzed the impact of Hurricane Katrina on environmental, social, and biophysical aspects of the affected areas, several studies have tried to analyze the impact of Katrina on forest vegetation. Rodgers et al. ( Rodgers et al. 2009 ) investigated the vegetation changes in the Weeks Bay Reserve after Hurricane Katrina using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data and found that the NDVI values were suppressed after Katrina because of the increased salinity

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Ruixin Yang, Allison Fairley, and Wonsun Park

generate the SOCV. The source of heat is inflow of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), which indicates a large-scale link between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The SOCV signal generated in the South Atlantic also propagates to the North Atlantic via different processes. Swingedouw et al. (2009) proposed three ways of connections: deep-water adjustment via oceanic waves, salinity anomaly advection, and wind impact on the NADW cell. Each has different response time scales in the model, of

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Scott R. Loarie, David B. Lobell, Gregory P. Asner, and Christopher B. Field

large albedo increase; (iii) the town of San Luis, Argentina; and (iv) a saline lake (Salinas del Bebedero). (e),(f) Quickbird images accessed through Google Earth showing a close up of the recent increase in albedo (ii) resulting from a decrease in vegetative cover likely from grazing. Figure 7. An example of albedo decreases associated with reservoirs in arid regions. Gray areas mask low quality data. (a) Change in albedo in a region of interest near the

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Y. Govender, E. Cuevas, L. D. S. Sternberg, and M. R. Jury

the next sampling period. A subsample of the rainwater samples was tested for salinity using a Brix refractometer at the time of collection. Vacutainers were stored in a refrigerator (4°C) in the laboratory until analysis at the Laboratory of Stable Isotope Ecology in Tropical Ecosystems (University of Miami). A total of 49 rainwater samples were analyzed in triplicate for δ 18 O and δD by mass spectrometry using methods described by Vendramini and Sternberg ( Vendramini and Sternberg 2007

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Philip Potter, Navin Ramankutty, Elena M. Bennett, and Simon D. Donner

cumulative gridcell area for harvested grid cells as a percentage of total global gridcell area. Figure 7. Global map of coastal hypoxic areas in relation to N application in fertilizers. Figure 2a is overlain with selected global basins that discharge into saline receiving waters (where nitrogen represents the dominant limiting nutrient) and location of documented hypoxic areas from Diaz and Rosenberg ( Diaz and Rosenberg 2008 ). Table

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Forrest M. Hoffman, William W. Hargrove Jr., David J. Erickson III, and Robert J. Oglesby

1. Introduction Understanding the physical environment that affects the life cycles of all plants and animals (including humans) is of paramount importance as natural and anthropogenic environmental changes occur. The environment is characterized by a large number of conditions, including land surface properties (soil type, elevation, rivers and lakes, vegetation, etc.), ocean properties (sea surface temperatures, salinity, circulation patterns, etc.), and atmospheric properties (chemical

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Dev Niyogi, Elin M. Jacobs, Xing Liu, Anil Kumar, Larry Biehl, and P. Suresh C. Rao

, including Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission ( Kerr et al. 2010 ) and the recently launched Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP; Entekhabi et al. 2010 ). While these products cover large areas, the spatial resolution is often coarse (e.g., 35–50 km for SMOS, 10 km for SMAP) and measure only the top 5 cm of soil. This combined with the difficulty to validate these products make them unsuitable for some applications requiring soil water storage dynamics in the entire root zone (~0–100 cm

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Christopher Potter, Pusheng Zhang, Steven Klooster, Vanessa Genovese, Shashi Shekhar, and Vipin Kumar

Earth’s oceans, including effects on circulation and salinity near the mouth of large rivers. For example, the thermohaline circulation is closely linked to the freshwater balance of the Arctic Ocean basin ( Driscoll and Haug, 1998 ). In semiclosed inland seas, such as the Mediterranean, circulation is strongly influenced by riverine inputs of freshwater. River discharge plays a key role in transport of dissolved and particulate materials within and from all the continents ( Ludwig and Probst, 1998

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Weiyue Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, and Weidong Guo

climatological-mean state of 1 January. Present-day oceanic temperature and salinity were used to initialize the ocean model. It is necessary to have the upper ocean reach a reasonable state of equilibrium to investigate interannual climate variability ( Kantha and Clayson 2000 ). In our simulations, the annual-mean SST takes approximately 10 to 20 years to reach equilibrium, which is generally consistent with previous studies ( Abe et al. 2003 ; Wohlfahrt et al. 2004 ; Kitoh 2004 ). Deep soil moisture

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Diandong Ren and Ann Henderson-Sellers

transpiration term. The effects from the soil water content, the ability of the soil to conduct water to the roots, and even the water logging and soil water salinity can be incorporated into ω. The contribution from the vegetation type as well as its developmental stage can be incorporated into R s . The atmospheric demand (e.g., energy supply, vapor pressure deficit, and wind speed), as pioneered by Penman ( Penman 1948 ), can be incorporated into T r . In numerical modeling, K is usually

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