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Axel J. Schweiger, Ron W. Lindsay, Steve Vavrus, and Jennifer A. Francis

1. Introduction This study is motivated by the need to understand potential linkages between sea ice and cloud cover. Sea ice extent has decreased markedly over the last few decades ( Cavalieri et al. 2003 ; Serreze et al. 2007 , 2003 ). The more recent (since 1988) decrease is thought to be the result of the combined effects of gradual warming, changes in the atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns, and the ice–albedo feedback ( Lindsay and Zhang 2005 ). Other studies implicate changes

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L-B. Tremblay and M. Hakakian

1. Introduction The advection of sea ice by surface wind and ocean stresses is a fundamental process affecting the concentration and thickness distribution of sea ice at high latitudes. These two factors in turn control the surface albedo, mediate the heat and freshwater fluxes between the atmosphere and ocean (and between different ocean basins), and through multiple feedbacks have a large influence on the high-latitude climate. For instance, projections of future climate change have often

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Zhiqiang Chen, Jiping Liu, Mirong Song, Qinghua Yang, and Shiming Xu

1. Introduction Arctic sea ice extent and thickness have experienced dramatic change in the past few decades. Sea ice extent has declined for all months since the late 1970s (e.g., Comiso 2012 ; Cavalieri and Parkinson 2012 ); that is, September ice extent has declined 13.3% decade −1 during 1979–2016, which is underestimated by most of the global climate models that participated in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) ( Stroeve et al. 2012 ). Accompanying the rapid

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Christopher M. Aiken and Matthew H. England

1. Introduction In this study we investigate the role played by Antarctic sea ice in global climate using a coupled climate model of intermediate complexity. Sea ice is an important component of the earth’s climate system, affecting both the ocean and the atmosphere by its presence and through its formation. The albedo of sea ice is substantially higher than that of the ocean, so that sea ice growth in the open ocean increases the reflection of incoming solar radiation back to space. The

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Jessica Liptak and Courtenay Strong

1. Introduction The interaction between Arctic sea ice and the atmosphere plays a large role in shaping local and hemispheric climate variability through changes in surface wind stress and turbulent heat fluxes. Physical reasoning suggests that negative sea ice anomalies locally induce upward sensible and latent heat flux anomalies, leading to decreased sea level pressure (SLP), cyclonic circulation, and surface convergence, while the opposite scenario occurs for positive sea ice anomalies. Sea

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Yoshihiro Nakayama, Kay I. Ohshima, and Yasushi Fukamachi

1. Introduction Sea ice drift is determined as a result of wind forcing and ice–ocean interaction. Studies on sea ice drift can be traced back to Nansen (1902) , who found that sea ice drifts with a speed of about 2% of the surface wind and about 25° to the right of the wind in the Northern Hemisphere. Recently, sea ice drift has been studied using drifting-buoy and satellite-microwave data in the entire polar sea ice regions (e.g., Thorndike and Colony 1982 ; Emery et al. 1997 ; Heil and

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Florence Chen, Sarah Friedman, Charles G. Gertler, James Looney, Nizhoni O’Connell, Katie Sierks, and Jerry X. Mitrovica

1. Introduction The marine isotope stage 11 (MIS11) interglacial was a period of protracted ice age warmth ~400 kyr (~400 000 yr) ago that is commonly cited as a natural laboratory for assessing the stability of polar ice sheets in the face of ongoing global warming (e.g., Hearty et al. 1999 ; Roberts et al. 2012 ). However, the peak globally averaged eustatic sea level (ESL) during MIS11 has been a matter of controversy ( Hearty et al. 1999 ; McMurtry et al. 2007 ; Hearty and Olson 2008

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Clara Deser, Robert Tomas, Michael Alexander, and David Lawrence

1. Introduction Arctic sea ice extent has declined over the past several decades, with the largest rate of retreat (∼−10% decade −1 ) in late summer ( Serreze et al. 2007 ; Comiso et al. 2008 ; Deser and Teng 2008 ; among others). The rate of decline has accelerated substantially in the past decade and now outpaces that simulated by most climate models in response to increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations ( Stroeve et al. 2007 ). The record losses of perennial Arctic sea ice in both

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Chao Li, Dirk Notz, Steffen Tietsche, and Jochem Marotzke

1. Introduction Simple models suggest that sea ice might exhibit multiple equilibria as a result of the ice–albedo feedback (e.g., Budyko 1969 ; Sellers 1969 ; North 1990 ). A possible irreversible shift of the sea ice state caused by anthropogenic climate change is of particular concern in evaluating the potential societal and environmental threat posed by future climate change, especially given the strong retreat of Arctic summer sea ice that has been observed in recent decades (e

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Yu-Chiao Liang, Young-Oh Kwon, and Claude Frankignoul

1. Introduction The loss of Arctic sea ice since the late 1970s has been observed by routine satellite missions ( Stroeve and Notz 2018 ). It is one of the most robust features accompanying the anthropogenic warming in the late twentieth century ( Meehl et al. 2007 ; Serreze et al. 2007 ) and is projected to exacerbate in the future ( Overland and Wang 2013 ; Stroeve et al. 2012 ). On top of the apparent decreasing trend, the Arctic sea ice exhibits strong natural variability ( Kay et al

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