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David A. R. Kristovich, Eugene Takle, George S. Young, and Ashish Sharma

Zealand . Atmos. Environ. , 24B , 19 – 27 , https://doi.org/10.1016/0957-1272(90)90005-F . 10.1016/0957-1272(90)90005-F Ten Broeck , H. H. , 1900 : Sudden disappearance of ice on the lakes . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 28 , 287 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1900)28[287a:SDOIOT]2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1900)28[287a:SDOIOT]2.0.CO;2 Tijm , A. B. , A. A. Holtslag , and A. J. van Delden , 1999 : Observations and modeling of the sea breeze with the return current . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 127

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Steven Ghan and Joyce E. Penner

of the earth. The term radiative forcing (RF) refers to the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on the shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes without considering the adjustment of clouds to the aerosol. RFari is the component of RF due to aerosol–radiation interactions, specifically scattering and absorption of radiation, while RFaci is the component of RF due to aerosol–cloud interactions, specifically aerosol effects on droplet and ice crystal number but not liquid water or ice mass concentration

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Chih-Pei Chang, Mong-Ming Lu, and Hock Lim

.1 . Wheeler , M. C. , and H. H. Hendon , 2004 : An all-season Real-time Multivariate MJO index: Development of an index for monitoring and prediction . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 132 , 1917 – 1932 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(2004)132<1917:AARMMI>2.0.CO;2 . Wu , B. , and J. Wang , 2002 : Possible impacts of winter Arctic Oscillation on Siberian high, the East Asian winter monsoon and sea-ice extent . Adv. Atmos. Sci. , 19 , 297 – 320 , doi: 10.1007/s00376-002-0024-x . Wu , C.-H. , and H.-H. Hsu

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Eli J. Mlawer, Michael J. Iacono, Robert Pincus, Howard W. Barker, Lazaros Oreopoulos, and David L. Mitchell

application of this code (and other fast RT codes) to climate or weather problems also must consider cloudy conditions. As a result, the ARM Program also has given rise to major accomplishments in cloudy-sky radiative transfer within GCMs. This includes a development of the ice optical property parameterization ( Mitchell 2002 ) integrated in RRTMG for use in CESM1. ARM support also led to the Monte Carlo Independent Column Approximation (McICA; Pincus et al. 2003 ; Barker et al. 2008 ), a method to

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David A. Randall, Anthony D. Del Genio, Leo J. Donner, William D. Collins, and Stephen A. Klein

source of simulated radiation errors was dwarfed by the effect of uncertainties in GCM predictions of the occurrence of clouds and their macrophysical and microphysical properties. In the early years, only the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site was operational ( Cress and Sisterson 2016 , chapter 5), which limited the ability of ARM data to address questions about clouds in the tropics, the global oceans, and the polar sea ice regions that are now known to account for most of the spread in GCM

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Margaret A. LeMone, Wayne M. Angevine, Christopher S. Bretherton, Fei Chen, Jimy Dudhia, Evgeni Fedorovich, Kristina B. Katsaros, Donald H. Lenschow, Larry Mahrt, Edward G. Patton, Jielun Sun, Michael Tjernström, and Jeffrey Weil

carried sea ice in a direction 20°–40° to the right of the prevailing wind direction. Although the problem setup was not particularly meteorological, Ekman mentioned possible atmospheric applications of his model, pointing to the analogy between the three-way balance among the pressure-gradient, Coriolis, and friction forces in the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers. Ekman’s treatment of turbulence (specifically, turbulent friction) in his equations was rather straightforward. Based on the

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C. N. Long, J. H. Mather, and T. P. Ackerman

in the tropical warm pool and in the Arctic to span, as it were, the extremes of global climate. The selection of the warm pool locale, which led to the establishment of the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites, occurred because of the recognized importance of the TWP in tropical and extratropical climate variability, about which relatively little was known at the time. The TWP area is typified by a strong east-to-west gradient in various climate characteristics, including sea surface temperature

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Roger Marchand

-infrared wavelengths (the latter meaning wavelengths where both thermal emission and solar scattering contribute significantly). In particular, several wavelengths (or bands) were included in the MODIS instrument to improve surface retrievals and improve discrimination of cloud over snow and sea ice ( Schueler and Barnes 1998 ). Observations collected by the ARM Program at its North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites at Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska, have been used by several researchers to evaluate satellite cloud

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Robert G. Fovell, Yizhe Peggy Bu, Kristen L. Corbosiero, Wen-wen Tung, Yang Cao, Hung-Chi Kuo, Li-huan Hsu, and Hui Su

employed, CRF invariably encourages the development of stronger winds in the TC’s outer core region, as long as the MP schemes generate sufficient cloud ice and snow. Our first CRF experiment, made with ARW, suggested that TCs with transparent clouds were systematically more intense; however, this result was not found to be robust after simulations from other models such as HWRF, CM1, and MPAS were examined. As a consequence, TC intensity is largely ignored in this review, and remains an issue for

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Guoxiong Wu and Yimin Liu

investigated by Wu et al. (2012c) through employing the GCM FGOALS_s. The model is integrated with prescribed, seasonally varying sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice. The controlled climate integration is referred to as the CON experiment. Although the ASM intensity possesses a stronger bias compared with observation induced by stronger cross-equatorial flow, the modeled precipitation ( Fig. 7-15a ) in general captures the main features of the ASM compared with observations ( Fig. 7-15b

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