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Anthony E. Morrison, Steven T. Siems, Michael J. Manton, and Alex Nazarov

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean and its accompanying air mass are among the most pristine environments on earth. A recent satellite climatology employing Cloudsat ( Mace et al. 2007 ) concludes that the majority of clouds over this region can broadly be categorized into two types. The most common are low and shallow having bases and tops below 3 km. The less prevalent type is relatively deeper clouds having bases below 3 km and tops between 5 and 10 km. Furthermore, typically

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Christopher J. Conrad and Nicole S. Lovenduski

1. Introduction Ocean uptake of anthropogenic CO 2 has substantially decreased surface carbonate ion concentration ( ) ( Caldeira and Wickett 2003 ; Feely et al. 2004 ; Orr et al. 2005 ). The Southern Ocean is particularly vulnerable to surface depletion due to the region’s naturally low concentration of carbonate ion ( Fabry 2009 ) and high uptake of anthropogenic CO 2 ( Khatiwala et al. 2009 ). Calcifiers, whose shells dissolve in the presence of carbonate depleted waters, are key

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Liping Zhang, Thomas L. Delworth, William Cooke, Hugues Goosse, Mitchell Bushuk, Yushi Morioka, and Xiaosong Yang

1. Introduction Multidecadal to centennial variability in the Southern Ocean (SO) is difficult to detect and characterize due to limited in situ observations. Paleoclimate tree ring records over adjacent continents do show long time scale variations in the past hundreds of years (e.g., Cook et al. 2000 ; Le Quesne et al. 2009 ). These low-frequency variations are seen in multiple climate models, including the Kiel Climate Model (e.g., Martin et al. 2013 ; Latif et al. 2013 ), Geophysical

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Zhan Wang, Steven T. Siems, Danijel Belusic, Michael J. Manton, and Yi Huang

1. Introduction The atmospheric environment over the Southern Ocean (SO) is unique: the lack of terrestrial and anthropogenic aerosols creates a pristine environment with few cloud condensation nuclei ( Yum and Hudson 2004 ; Gras 1995 ). Strong winds produce large waves that, when coupled together, generate large concentrations of sea spray ( Murphy et al. 1998 ). Recent satellite observations of the cloud-top thermodynamic phase suggest that vast fields of clouds composed of supercooled

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Michael P. Meredith, Alberto C. Naveira Garabato, Andrew McC. Hogg, and Riccardo Farneti

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean plays a disproportionately important role in determining global climate, in no small part because of its strong meridional overturning circulation and the associated fluxes and air–sea exchanges of heat, freshwater, and climatically important tracers such as CO 2 ( Le Quéré et al. 2007 ; Solomon et al. 2007 ). The strong westerly winds that overlie the Southern Ocean play a major role in driving this overturning circulation, and also the large horizontal

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Amelie Meyer, Bernadette M. Sloyan, Kurt L. Polzin, Helen E. Phillips, and Nathaniel L. Bindoff

1. Introduction In the stratified ocean, turbulent mixing is primarily attributed to the dissipation of internal waves. Recent work suggests that in some regions of the Southern Ocean, the interaction between the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, or tidal flows, and rough topography is a significant source of internal waves (e.g., Naveira Garabato et al. 2004b ; Nikurashin and Ferrari 2010 ). There is growing evidence that the resulting enhanced mixing over regions of rough topography affects

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Katsuro Katsumata

found strong eddy transport along the Northern Hemisphere western boundary currents, in the southern Indian Ocean, and in the Southern Ocean. Eddies play important roles in shaping large-scale circulation, both zonal and meridional, particularly in the Southern Ocean. The roles include diffusion of momentum and tracers (e.g., Klocker et al. 2012 ), meridional overturning circulation without a large-scale zonal pressure gradient [see Marshall and Speer (2012) for a review], and winter subduction

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Jia-Rui Shi, Lynne D. Talley, Shang-Ping Xie, Wei Liu, and Sarah T. Gille

1. Introduction Observations have revealed a complex set of changes in the Southern Ocean over the past few decades. The most pronounced is subsurface warming in the Southern Ocean ( Purkey and Johnson 2010 ; Rhein et al. 2013 ; Roemmich et al. 2015 ; Desbruyères et al. 2016 ; Cheng et al. 2016 ; Shi et al. 2018 ), which illustrates the important role of the Southern Ocean in slowing the global surface warming rate. This significant warming can be traced back to the 1950s ( Gille 2002

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Barry A. Klinger and Carlos Cruz

). Traditionally, the DMOC has been described as a thermohaline circulation, driven by pressure gradients produced by subsurface mixing and meridional surface density differences ( Warren 1981 ; Bryan 1987 ; Marotzke and Willebrand 1991 ). The density-driven component of the DMOC appears to be augmented by a component driven by the subpolar westerly wind over the Southern Ocean ( Toggweiler and Samuels 1995 , 1998 ). Increasing the wind stress increases the amount of deep-water formation in the northern

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Etienne Pauthenet, Fabien Roquet, Gurvan Madec, and David Nerini

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean has a latitude band with no meridional boundary, allowing the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) to flow from west to east around Antarctica. This nearly zonal ACC is organized in three major fronts that deeply influence the distribution of properties ( Talley et al. 2011 ): from north to south, the Subantarctic Front (SAF), the Polar Front (PF), and the Southern ACC Front (SACCF). The Southern Ocean is traditionally bordered by the Subtropical Front (STF) to

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