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Atsushi Kubokawa

, the potential vorticity in the thermocline is distorted from zonal uniformity because of the parcel-wise conservation of the potential vorticity (PV), as demonstrated in modern ocean circulation theories ( Luyten et al. 1983 ; Young and Rhines 1982 ). According their theories, ocean gyre can be divided into three dynamically different zones: shadow, ventilated, and homogenized PV pool. Liu (1993) and Liu and Pedlosky (1994) studied the response of a two-layer oceanic gyre consisting of these

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Lauren B. Kuntz and Daniel P. Schrag

the Community Earth System Model (CESM) (0.1° in the ocean) to explore the global ocean circulation, finding that the equatorial SST gradient in the high-resolution model compared well with observations, but the SST variance was too small ( Small et al. 2014 ); they argued that excessive depth of the thermocline in their simulations might be due to the absence of a spatially dependent diffusivity. In this paper, we explore how the CMIP5 models simulate the magnitude and variability of the EUC. We

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Yuanlong Li, Fan Wang, and Fangguo Zhai

. S. Timlin , 1996 : Upper-ocean thermal variations in the North Pacific during 1970–1991 . J. Climate , 9 , 1840 – 1855 . Ducet , N. , P. Y. Le Traon , and G. Reverdin , 2000 : Global high-resolution mapping of ocean circulation from TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS-1 and -2 . J. Geophys. Res. , 105 , 19 477 – 19 498 . Ffield , A. , and A. L. Gordon , 1992 : Vertical mixing in the Indonesian thermocline . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 22 , 184 – 195 . Fine , R. A. , R. Lukas , F. M

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Hartmut H. Hellmer, Frank Kauker, Ralph Timmermann, and Tore Hattermann

twentieth century, is indicated by the dashed orange arrow. The positions of the profiles used for analyzing the processes across the Filchner Trough Sill (FTS) ( Fig. 9 ) are marked as red stars. Inset shows map location within the Southern Ocean. The southern Weddell Sea continental shelf is far from the southern ACC front. A clockwise gyre circulation causes CDW derivatives to enter the Weddell Sea from the east ( Schröder and Fahrbach 1999 ; Ryan et al. 2016 ) and continue as warm deep water (WDW

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Fabian Schloesser

closed contours is the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) in the Southern Ocean. Because no eastern boundary exists at the Drake Passage latitudes, characteristics are closed around Antarctica ( Wyrtki 1961 ; Toggweiler and Samuels 1995 ), as they are in region B. In the ocean basins adjacent to the Southern Ocean, on the other hand, the thermocline and circulation is controlled by gyre dynamics and eastern boundary Rossby waves as in region A ( Samelson 2009 ; Radko and Kamenkovich 2011 ). In

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Shijian Hu, Ying Zhang, Ming Feng, Yan Du, Janet Sprintall, Fan Wang, Dunxin Hu, Qiang Xie, and Fei Chai

1. Introduction Oceanic salinity plays an important role in the climate system due to its significant influence on oceanic stratification and barrier layers ( Sprintall and Tomczak 1992 ; Thompson et al. 2006 ; Balaguru et al. 2016 ) and ocean circulation ( Gordon et al. 2003 ; Feng et al. 2015 ; Hu and Sprintall 2016 , 2017a , b ), and has a close link to the global hydrological cycle ( Durack and Wijffels 2010 ; Durack et al. 2012 ). Investigation of ocean salinity variability and

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Young-Oh Kwon and Claude Frankignoul

1. Introduction The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is a crucial component of the Atlantic as well as the global climate, for example through its close relationship with the meridional ocean heat transport (e.g., Msadek et al. 2013 ) and the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO; e.g., Knight et al. 2005 ). Although the AMOC is in nature a three-dimensional circulation, it is commonly studied in two-dimensional space, using the meridional overturning streamfunction, which

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Arthur J. Miller, Daniel R. Cayan, and Warren B. White

al. 1993 ) of cooling in the central North Pacific and warming along the eastern boundary seen in the SST is replaced at depth by a western-intensified structure in the temperature field north of 30°N that is reminiscent of gyre-scale circulation theory (e.g., Pedlosky 1987 ). This subsurface cooling in the Kuroshio Extension area was identified by Deser et al. (1996) and appears to extend up to the surface. We present evidence here that the previously observed local thermocline cooling is

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L. B. Kuntz and D. P. Schrag

regions, did not trace subsurface waters to their origin at the surface, and could not capture the dynamical variability of the system. Later studies identified a subtropical origin of waters entering the tropical Pacific through subtropical cells (STCs). The theory of ventilated thermocline transport provided a simplified analytical framework to explain the STCs’ circulation pathway, positing that waters subducted in the subtropics propagate along isopycnals to the equatorial Pacific, feeding into

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Xiaoming Zhai, Helen L. Johnson, and David P. Marshall

1. Introduction The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic sector (e.g., Hurrell 1995 ) and has a significant impact on the North Atlantic Ocean’s circulation and hydrographic properties through its modulation of air–sea momentum, heat, and freshwater fluxes. During the last 50 years, the NAO has exhibited large interannual and decadal variability, switching from its negative phase in the 1960s to strong positive phase in the late

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