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Amy Solomon, Matthew D. Shupe, Ola Persson, Hugh Morrison, Takanobu Yamaguchi, Peter M. Caldwell, and Gijs de Boer

energy budget terms ( Herman and Goody 1976 ; Curry and Ebert 1992 ; Schweiger and Key 1994 ; Zhang et al. 1996 ; Walsh and Chapman 1998 ; Intrieri et al. 2002 ; Shupe and Intrieri 2004 ; Inoue et al. 2006 ; Shupe et al. 2013 ). For example, Zuidema et al. (2005) estimated that a springtime AMPS observed during SHEBA had a net surface cloud forcing of 41 W m −2 due to the presence of cloud water, which increased cloud emissivity and, thus, downwelling longwave radiation ( Sun and Shine

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Esther Portela, Nicolas Kolodziejczyk, Christophe Maes, and Virginie Thierry

) framework to investigate the decadal volume trend of interior water masses in the SHOs by means of a volume budget. Potential density is the natural coordinate to separate isopycnal (diaspice) and diapycnal mass fluxes while spiciness, defined as the thermohaline variations along isopycnals (following the definition of McDougall and Krzysik 2015 ), is added as a second dimension in the volume budget. Spiciness is a meaningful variable to identify different water masses spreading along isopycnals

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Geoffrey Gebbie

). Here we perform a scaling analysis with the global ocean modeled as a water column where sea level rise is equal to the change in ocean thickness, H m − H g , although our detailed analysis will show later that hypsometric effects cannot be ignored for the deglaciation (e.g., Becker et al. 2009 ). In the first deglacial step, freshwater of thickness h M is added to balance the deglacial mass budget, which includes any mass input by glacial meltwater, changes in atmospheric water vapor

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D. Carrer, S. Lafont, J.-L. Roujean, J.-C. Calvet, C. Meurey, P. Le Moigne, and I. F. Trigo

, 2415 – 2434 . Béziat, P. , Ceschia E. , and Dedieu G. , 2009 : Carbon balance of a three crop succession over two cropland sites in South West France . Agric. For. Meteor. , 149 , 1628 – 1645 . Calvet, J.-C. , and Coauthors , 1999 : MUREX: A land-surface field experiment to study the annual cycle of the energy and water budgets . Ann. Geophys. , 17 , 838 – 854 . Chen, T. H. , and Coauthors , 1997 : Cabauw experimental results from the project for intercomparison of land

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Craig R. Ferguson and Eric F. Wood

) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA; Huffman et al. 2007 ) or the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) morphing technique (CMORPH; Joyce et al. 2004 ) P , to demonstrate over the Mississippi River basin the feasibility of monitoring the terrestrial water budget exclusively with RS data. Feasibility was confirmed, but the water balance closure error was shown to be on the order of the basin’s Q , underscoring basic inconsistency among current state-of-the-art RS products. Other studies have

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Meixia Lv, Zhuguo Ma, Liang Chen, and Shaoming Peng

( Wang and Dickinson 2012 ; Mueller et al. 2013 ; Lei et al. 2015 ; Liu et al. 2016b ; Dong and Dai 2017 ; Mao and Wang 2017 ). ET has been reported as one of the most uncertain variables that may induce failures in the water balance estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) change ( Syed et al. 2009 ; Long et al. 2015 ). For the water budget, in terms of precipitation, ET, runoff, and TWS change (TWSC), Zhang et al. (2018) reported that the attribution of water budget nonclosure errors to

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Marika Koukoula, Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos, Zoi Dokou, and Emmanouil N. Anagnostou

al. (2017) used the JGrass-NewAGE system and various remote sensing products to estimate precipitation, ET, discharge, and storage in UBN. Their analysis showed precipitation is around 1360 ± 230 mm yr −1 , with the average basin-scale ET at about 740 ± 87 mm yr −1 (constituting about 56% of the annual budget) and the long-term annual runoff at about 454 ± 160 mm yr −1 . Siam et al. (2013) used atmospheric and soil water balance constraints to evaluate general circulation models (GCMs) and

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Bo Dong, John D. Lenters, Qi Hu, Christopher J. Kucharik, Tiejun Wang, Mehmet E. Soylu, and Phillip M. Mykleby

how changes in water availability within a given season affect water budget trends in succeeding seasons. In this study, we use the agricultural version of the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (Agro-IBIS) model—a dynamic vegetation and land surface hydrologic model incorporating growth and management of corn, soybeans, and wheat ( Kucharik et al. 2000 ; Kucharik 2003 ; Kucharik and Brye 2003 )—to simulate variations in the surface water balance of the central United States from 1984 to 2007

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Ervin Zsoter, Hannah Cloke, Elisabeth Stephens, Patricia de Rosnay, Joaquin Muñoz-Sabater, Christel Prudhomme, and Florian Pappenberger

a closed water budget, where the amount of water in the system remains the same. By opening the water budget, river discharge biases could emerge in situations where the LSM has an energy balance bias that is not corrected by the assimilation but only by accurate precipitation and snow accumulation forcing. For example, if the snow in the LSM is melting too slowly, this forces the LDAS to remove water (through snow) artificially to correct for the excessive amount of snow on the surface. If the

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Muhammad Shafeeque, Yi Luo, Xiaolei Wang, and Lin Sun

. 2014 ), is evaluated against the observed precipitation (OBS) for an overlapped period 2001–07 at monthly, seasonal, and annual scales. Then, the ability of precipitation datasets, including OBS to reproduce the water balance is tested. After that, a corrected reference precipitation dataset is constructed based on the water and mass balance in UIB. Then, the horizontal and vertical distribution of precipitation are revealed. Finally, the suitability and physical realism or correctness of datasets

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