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Maxi Boettcher and Heini Wernli

systems ( Raymond and Jiang 1990 ). They identified a dynamic–thermodynamic phenomenon, referred to as the diabatic Rossby wave (DRW), that generates potential vorticity (PV) disturbances at low levels diabatically in a similar manner as the meridional advection of PV in a classic Rossby wave. Parker and Thorpe (1995) studied DRWs situated over a frontal zone with a semigeostrophic model and described the basic mechanism of DRWs: advection of moist air masses on the eastern flank of the low

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Andreas Schäfler, Andreas Dörnbrack, Christoph Kiemle, Stephan Rahm, and Martin Wirth

simultaneous and collocated measurements of the atmospheric variables υ h and q . Meteorological towers and airborne or balloonborne in situ observations provide this information at specific locations and along flight trajectories. However, observations covering larger areas and the complete troposphere are only possible with high-flying aircraft equipped with nadir-pointing remote sensing instruments. During recent years, airborne lidar measurements of both wind and water vapor have been performed to

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Kirstin Kober and George C. Craig

1. Introduction Forecasting convective initiation more than a few hours in advance is an ongoing challenge in atmospheric research. The exact timing and location will probably not be forecast by numerical weather prediction (NWP) models in the near future, but forecasts of the probability of precipitation can show useful skill. Probabilistic forecasts aim to represent uncertainty that results from several sources of varying importance. The intrinsic uncertainty of a chaotic system like the

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Hilke S. Lentink, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, and Sarah C. Jones

Center “Waves to Weather” (TRR 165), project A4: “Evolution and predictability of storm structure during extratropical transition of tropical cyclones.” Observational data were obtained in the framework of T-PARC. We thank the international consortium that supported the T-PARC field campaign and acknowledge the involvement of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF)–sponsored National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) for data management and quality control

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Simon T. K. Lang, Sarah C. Jones, Martin Leutbecher, Melinda S. Peng, and Carolyn A. Reynolds

the storm center. Yamaguchi and Majumdar (2010) investigated the growth of the initial-condition perturbations of different ensemble prediction systems with respect to TCs. They found that the perturbations of the ECMWF EPS grow because of barotropic and baroclinic energy conversions in a vortex and baroclinic energy conversion in midlatitude waves. To assess the utility of the SVs for observation targeting and for ensemble construction, it is important to elucidate the dynamical processes that

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Kirstin Kober, Annette M. Foerster, and George C. Craig

. Arpagaus , and M. Rotach , 2010 : Assessing the benefits of convection-permitting models by neighborhood verification: Examples from MAP D-PHASE . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 138 , 3418 – 3433 , doi: 10.1175/2010MWR3380.1 . Wilks , D. , 2006 : Probability forecasts of discrete predictands. Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Sciences , 2nd ed. Academic Press, 282 – 298 . Zepeda-Arce , J. , E. Foufoula-Georgiou , and K. Droegemeier , 2000 : Space-time rainfall organization and its role in

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