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Benjamin Jaimes and Lynn K. Shay

-driven kinetic energy was available to increase vertical shears inside the cyclones (anticyclones) because the OML current response was stronger (weaker) and energy was barely (largely) radiated into the ocean’s interior. Consequently, contrasting OML cooling levels were measured along the storms’ tracks, suggesting an important nonlinear modulation of the near-inertial wave wake of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita by the geostrophic eddy field. Within the framework of linear theory a wake develops in the ocean

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Friederike Pollmann

1. Introduction Internal gravity waves constitute a crucial component of the ocean’s energy cascade from large to small scales and play an important role for ocean dynamics as the mixing induced by their breaking provides some of the energy required to maintain the overturning circulation ( Munk and Wunsch 1998 ; Wunsch and Ferrari 2004 ). The scale-bridging energy transfer is associated with nonlinear wave–wave interactions, which flux energy through the spectrum without changing its total

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Xiaoqian Zhang, David C. Smith IV, Steven F. DiMarco, and Robert D. Hetland

sea breeze) for inertial internal waves is the latitude at which the wave frequency matches the local Coriolis frequency leading to a change in character of the wave solution. As the inertial energy cascades into small-scale motions or produces local vertical shear, it can dissipate and contribute to the ocean mixing. In the coastal regions, the periodic sea breeze has been observed to drive significant near-inertial motions ( Zhang et al. 2009 ; Rosenfeld 1988 ; DiMarco et al. 2000 ; Simpson

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Maxim Nikurashin, Raffaele Ferrari, Nicolas Grisouard, and Kurt Polzin

1. Introduction Recent observations show that internal wave kinetic energy and turbulent energy dissipation are enhanced up to a kilometer above rough bottom topography in the Southern Ocean ( Polzin and Firing 1997 ; Naveira Garabato et al. 2004 ; Sloyan 2005 ; St. Laurent et al. 2012 ; Waterman et al. 2012 ). These observations suggest that enhanced turbulence is sustained by breaking internal waves generated when the strong bottom flows of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) impinge

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Dongliang Yuan and Hailong Liu

1999). The satellite data thus indicate anomalous tilting of the sea level, which suggests a thermocline dipole, associated with the SST dipole in the equatorial Indian Ocean. So far, detailed analyses of the dynamics that control sea level and thermocline depth variations during the IOD events have been lacking. Le Blanc and Boulanger (2001) used the altimeter data from the TOPEX/Poseidon mission to study the long equatorial wave dynamics of the seasonal-to-interannual variations of the Indian

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Jim Thomson, Michael S. Schwendeman, Seth F. Zippel, Saeed Moghimi, Johannes Gemmrich, and W. Erick Rogers

1. Introduction Wave breaking at the ocean surface limits wave growth ( Melville 1994 ), enhances gas exchange ( Zappa et al. 2007 ), and generates turbulence that mixes the ocean surface layer ( Burchard et al. 2008 ; Kukulka and Brunner 2015 ). Previous observations of wave-breaking turbulence have shown strong enhancement near the surface, at values that far exceed those predicted by simple “law of the wall” boundary layer scaling ( Agrawal et al. 1992 ; Terray et al. 1996 ; Gemmrich and

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Mikhail Dobrynin, Jens Murawski, Johanna Baehr, and Tatiana Ilyina

1. Introduction Wind waves control the basic physical processes, such as heat, momentum, and mass exchange between ocean and atmosphere ( Cavaleri et al. 2012 ). Wind waves generate additional turbulence, modify ocean currents, and control the state of the sea surface. All these processes affect the air–sea exchange, general circulation patterns, and wind in the atmosphere, which in turn control wind waves. This cycle establishes a wind–wave feedback loop in the Earth system. In line with

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Frode Hoydalsvik

importance for the formation of half-wavelength sandbars on the sea bottom ( Herbich et al. 1965 ; Carter et al. 1973 ; Yu and Mei 2000 ). The physical mechanism of the recirculation cells in a nonrotating frame is well known (e.g., Rayleigh 1883; Longuet-Higgins 1953 ; Mei 1983). However, the details of the vertically varying mean particle velocity in a rotating frame is yet not fully clear. Traditionally, the theoretical investigation of the mean mass transport in long ocean waves affected by

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Tomoya Shimura, Nobuhito Mori, and Hajime Mase

1. Introduction Impacts and adaptations of climate change have been studied in various fields. Sea level rise greatly impacts human activity near coastal zones ( Bindoff et al. 2007 ) and amplifies the vulnerability of coastal regions. Ocean surface gravity waves (simply waves hereafter) produce more complex impacts than sea level rise on coastal and ocean structures, beach morphology, and other ecosystems. To assess the impacts of climate change on coastal areas, it is necessary to evaluate

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Peygham Ghaffari and Jan Erik H. Weber

1. Introduction In recent years the interest in coastally trapped waves, for example, the Stokes edge wave, has risen considerably. This is particularly so because they have been shown to be of fundamental importance in the dynamics and the sedimentology of the nearshore zone through their interaction with ocean swell and surf to produce rip current patterns, beach cusps, and crescentic bars ( LeBlond and Mysak 1978 ). The nonlinear mean mass transport in such waves has also been investigated

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