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Nicholas E. Wayand, Alan F. Hamlet, Mimi Hughes, Shara I. Feld, and Jessica D. Lundquist

reasons. First, it is a relatively simple basin in terms of subsurface contributions. Shallow soils, steep topography, and negligible groundwater contribution during the cool season mean that accurate simulation of streamflow is largely dependent on the meteorological forcing. Second, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) program has maintained a dense network of meteorological stations that cover the basin ( Ralph et al. 2005 ). Third, the upper

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Shakti P. C.,, M. Maki, S. Shimizu, T. Maesaka, D.-S. Kim, D.-I. Lee, and H. Iida

Meeting, Wellington, New Zealand, Amer. Geophys. Union, H42A-02. Barber, P. , and Yeh C. , 1975 : Scattering of electromagnetic waves by arbitrarily shaped dielectric bodies . Appl. Opt. , 14 , 2864 – 2872 . Barros, A. P. , Joshi M. , Putkonen J. , and Burbank D. W. , 2000 : A study of the 1999 monsoon rainfall in a mountainous region in central Nepal using TRMM products and rain gauge observations . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 27 , 3683 – 3686 . Battan, L. J. , 1973 : Radar

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James A. Smith, Mary Lynn Baeck, Gabriele Villarini, Daniel B. Wright, and Witold Krajewski

and below), the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-yr rainfall accumulations for northeastern Iowa are approximately 110, 150, 165, and 210 mm, respectively. For 48 h (see analyses below), the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-yr rainfall accumulations are approximately 125, 165, 185, and 230 mm, respectively [based on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) precipitation frequency atlas values; ]. Record flooding in the Nodaway River basin ( Fig. 6 , top

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Joel R. Norris, F. Martin Ralph, Reuben Demirdjian, Forest Cannon, Byron Blomquist, Christopher W. Fairall, J. Ryan Spackman, Simone Tanelli, and Duane E. Waliser

forced upslope due to coastal orography ( Ralph et al. 2006 ; Neiman et al. 2011 ). The importance of ARs to water supply and flood danger has motivated observational campaigns to understand the processes that increase and decrease IWV. Previous observational campaigns (e.g., Neiman et al. 2014 , 2016 ) investigated ARs over the northeastern Pacific Ocean using in situ aircraft observations and dropsondes. While satellites can report the spatial distribution of IWV, only in situ measurements can

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F. Chen, W. T. Crow, L. Ciabatta, P. Filippucci, G. Panegrossi, A. C. Marra, S. Puca, and C. Massari

applied to obtain error estimates for measurement or model estimates of geophysical variables such as soil moisture (e.g., Scipal et al. 2010 ; Draper et al. 2013 ; Chen et al. 2018 ), leaf area index (e.g., Fang et al. 2012 ), and ocean wind and wave heights (e.g., Caires and Sterl 2003 ; Chakraborty et al. 2013 ; Wang et al. 2014 ). The application of collocation-based approaches to rainfall products is described in Mahfouf et al. (2007) , Wang et al. (2018) , and Massari et al. (2017

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Blandine Bianchi, Peter Jan van Leeuwen, Robin J. Hogan, and Alexis Berne

acknowledged (Grant CR22D-135551). REFERENCES Andsager, K. , Beard K. V. , and Laird N. F. , 1999 : Laboratory measurements of axis ratios for large rain drops . J. Atmos. Sci. , 56 , 2673 – 2683 . Atlas, D. , and Ulbrich C. W. , 1977 : Path and area integrated rainfall measurement by microwave attenuation in the 1–3 cm band . J. Appl. Meteor. , 16 , 327 – 332 . Barber, P. , and Yeh C. , 1975 : Scattering of electromagnetic waves by arbitrarily shaped dielectric bodies . Appl. Opt

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Steven M. Martinaitis, Stephen B. Cocks, Andrew P. Osborne, Micheal J. Simpson, Lin Tang, Jian Zhang, and Kenneth W. Howard

August 2017 approximately 815 km east of Barbados. It was classified as a tropical storm at 1800 UTC 17 August but degenerated into a tropical wave 48 h later in the Caribbean Sea. Regeneration began on 23 August 2017 followed by a rapid intensification up to the initial CONUS landfall on San Jose Island, Texas, at 0300 UTC 26 August with maximum sustained winds of 115 kt (59.2 m s −1 ) and an estimated minimum central pressure of 937 hPa. Harvey decelerated over Texas following landfall and looped

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Pierre Gentine, Albert A. M. Holtslag, Fabio D'Andrea, and Michael Ek

( Chagnon et al. 2004 ; Wang et al. 2009 ) hinted toward the existence of the dry advantage regime by satellite observation of shallow cloud occurrence over forested and deforested areas in the Amazon. A dry advantage regime was also documented through the sensitivity integration of a regional model under heat wave conditions in Europe ( Stéfanon et al. 2013 ). The relative humidity tendency equation used in EH04 is composed of an instantaneous surface evaporative term [evaporative fraction (EF)] and

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Liang Chen, Trent W. Ford, and Priyanka Yadav

atmosphere, ocean, land, sea ice, and land ice. As the primary focus of this study is flash drought and land–atmosphere feedback, all the simulations are conducted with the FHIST component set. The FHIST component set allows the active, coupled Community Atmosphere Model (CAM6; Bogenschutz et al. 2018 ) and Community Land Model (CLM5; Lawrence et al. 2019 ) but using prescribed transient monthly sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea ice concentrations (SICs). The transient SSTs and SICs are derived

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Yafang Zhong, Jason A. Otkin, Martha C. Anderson, and Christopher Hain

through use of lead–lag correlation analysis, as discussed in the next section. c. Lead–lag correlation analysis Lead–lag correlation analysis is widely used in the study of ocean–atmosphere coupling to help identify the driving mechanisms. For example, the largely symmetric correlations of monthly wind and sea surface temperature (SST) with respect to the lags indicate essentially two-way interactions in the tropics ( Lian et al. 2018 ); whereas in the extratropics, the much heavier loading at wind

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