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A. A. N. Patrinos and K. O. Bowman

290 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUME I9Weather Modification from Cooling Towers: A Test Based on 'the Distributional Properties of Rainfall' A. A. N. PATRINOSEngineering Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN $7850 K. O. BOWMANComputer Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Union Carbide Corporation

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Norihiko Fukuta

Japanese weather modification activities have been surveyed. The principal works have evolved in three stages. During the early program from 1947 to 1960, the research was carried out in the major universities with sponsorship derived from the electric power companies. Many technical developments concerning the generation, detection, and behavior of artificial ice nuclei took place during this period. Experimental work was concentrated on ground seeding programs. Around the end of this period, the lack of basic knowledge in cloud seeding was realized while the practical program, although curtailed in some areas, continued operation. Tokyo Metropolitan Office of City Water Supply started developing a comprehensive but routine seeding program in order to secure the water supply in dry seasons.

The second period occurred between 1961 and 1967 when the Science and Technology Agency funded a five year project to the Japanese Artificial Rainfall Research Corporation for the purpose of obtaining more basic information on clouds and cloud seeding. This research was carried out in Kwanto and Kyushu Branches of the corporation.

In the third and most recent period starting in 1968, the research trend has been toward microphysics and dynamics of clouds with continuing effort on instrumentation development. Weather modification research of the hazard prevention type is currently emphasized.

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J. Michael Fritsch


Modification of mesoscale convective weather systems through ice-phase seeding is briefly reviewed. a simple mathematical framework for estimating the likely mesoscale response to convective cloud modification is presented, and previous mesoscale modification hypotheses are discussed in the context of this mathematical framework. Some basic differences between cloud-scale and mesoscale modification hypotheses are also discussed. Numerical model experiments to test the mesoscale sensitivity of convective weather systems are reviewed, and several focal points for identifying mesoscale modification potential are presented.

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Steven T. Sonka and Stanley A. Changnon Jr.

Jv~.-1977 STEVEN T. SONKA AND STANLEY A. CHANGNON, JR. 677A Methodology to Estimate the Value of Weather Modification Projects: An Illustration for Hail Suppression STEVEN T. Som<A Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign 61280 STANLmt A. C/tANONON, Ja.Atmospheric Sciences Section, Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana, and Department of

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William C. Ackermann, Stanley A. Changnon Jr., and Ray Jay Davis

The Illinois State Water Survey, a state water resources research agency, initiated efforts in 1971 to develop and secure a law for Illinois that would permit and regulate weather modification activities. Such legislation was deemed a prime requirement, not only for the proper execution of scientific experiments on weather modification in Illinois but for the general benefit of citizens of Illinois through encouragement to properly conducted activities and protection from improperly conducted weather modification operations. (It was our intention to develop a “model law” that reflected the best aspects of weather modification legislation and experience in other states, and which would serve as a model for future legislation in other states.) The efforts began in October 1971 and were completed in September 1973 with the signing of the Illinois Weather Modification Control Bill and its accompanying appropriation bill. This paper describes the type of law desired, the activities performed to secure the law, and the primary aspects of the enacted Illinois law.

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Stanley A. Changnon Jr.

Weather modification activities in 1972 are reviewed to identify the major new projects, the major new findings, the major problems, and what these all mean for this exciting, often controversial science. The major new projects revealed a decided increase in interest and funding at the state and local levels, as well as new thrusts in federal programs. Non-governmental support of weather modification research and operations performed by American commercial firms exceeded $8 million, representing about 25% of the total expenditure on weather modification in the United States in 1972. Major new findings related to a variety of laboratory, instrumental, and field activities concerning planned modification of precipitation, hail, and warm fog, and also to inadvertent modification of clouds and rainfall. Several controversies regarding weather modification arose in 1972, but they all revolved more around the questions of its desirability or methodology, rather than whether it could be done. In general, 1972 was a year of 1) growing public acceptance and concern over weather modification as a technology, 2) growing local-state support of weather modification, and 3) federal reassessment of the thrust of their programs.

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F. A. Huff

imp!ications in weather modification during the critical growing season (May-September) and thewater-supply replenishment period (October-April). Nomograms were deve!oped from the c!imatologica!distributions to facilitate the evaluations. By relating area! to point distributions, a method was devisedfor deriving similar information for less dense network areas.PART 1: CLIMATOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STORM PRECIPITATION1.IntroductionA substantial deficiency exists in our understandingof the

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William R. Cotton and Roger A. Pielke

The application of three-dimensional time-dependent models to weather modification experiments along with the ways in which mesoscale simulations may be used as an aid in clarifying and formulating the physical basis of a weather modification hypothesis is discussed. It is furthermore pointed out that such models can be an aid in the design of field experiments, in the evaluation of field experiments, and in decision making during the daily operations of the experiment. Not only does the challenge of weather modification require considerable advancement in our understanding of the complex physics and dynamics of mesoscale processes, but it is also essential that we develop parameterizations of these processes in order for a mesoscale model to be of value in the post hoc analyses of weather modification experiments and as a decision aid.

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Mary T. DiGiulian and Mason T. Charak

This article is a summary of all U.S. state laws relating to weather modification which were in effect at the end of 1973. Although previous studies in this area have been conducted, this is the only current summary of all state laws available in published form. The summary shows that 28 states have some form of statute on the regulation of weather modification activities ranging from simple to complex. The most prevalent provisions in the state laws are those concerning the establishment of Weather Modification Boards and Commissions, operator license requirements, penalties for not complying with state laws, permits for conducting specific weather modification operations, operators' financial responsibility for results of their modification activities, mandatory advance public notice of activities, payment of fees to obtain licenses and/or permits, operators' records and, in some instances, reports on their activities. The Environmental Modification Office of the Department of Commerce's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will keep updated information on all state legislation related to weather modification which will be available to all interested persons.

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A. A. N. Patrino, N. C. J. Chen, and R. L. Miller

VOL. 18, NO. 6 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY JUNE 1979Spatial Correlations of Monthly Rainfall: Applications in Climatology and Weather Modification Experiments~ A. A. N. PATm~qOS, N. C. J. CHEN AN~) R. L. MILLEREngineering Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830(Manuscript received 15 September 1978, in final form 3 January 1979)ABSTRACT SpatiM correlations

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