Search Results

You are looking at 31 - 40 of 307 items for :

  • Anthropogenic effects x
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology x
  • All content x
Clear All
Dazhi Xi, Ning Lin, and James Smith

rainfall is weaker but covers larger areas. TC rainfall is related to TC intensity, and the rain rate is varying with radius, with on average highest rain rates occurring in the eyewall region and lower rain rates in outer radii ( Lonfat et al. 2004 ). Recent studies also found that the highest precipitation from landfalling TCs are often caused by tropical storms weakened from major hurricanes ( Touma et al. 2019 ). Several mechanisms have been found to be important for TC rainfall. Frictional effects

Open access
Peter J. Shellito, Sujay V. Kumar, Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Patricia Lawston-Parker, John D. Bolten, Michael H. Cosh, David D. Bosch, Chandra D. Holifield Collins, Stan Livingston, John Prueger, Mark Seyfried, and Patrick J. Starks

level, DA involves updating simulated values toward those from an observation-based platform or network. Natural or anthropogenic processes that are present in observations but not explicitly accommodated by a model (or passed into a model via forcing data) can be at least partially captured through DA, resulting in improved outcomes for regional and global models (e.g., Felfelani et al. 2018 ; Rains et al. 2017 ; De Lannoy and Reichle 2016a , b ). Datasets from remotely sensed observations are

Restricted access
Long Yang, James A. Smith, Daniel B. Wright, Mary Lynn Baeck, Gabriele Villarini, Fuqiang Tian, and Heping Hu

affects water vapor in the atmosphere (e.g., Held and Soden 2006 ). Changes in the heavy rainfall climatology for the Milwaukee region, and other urban areas around the world, are also potentially linked to urban modification of regional climate through urban heat island (UHI), urban canopy, and urban aerosol effects (as reviewed by Shepherd 2005 ; Collier 2005 ; Lowry 1998 ). Urban modification of the regional precipitation climatology is an important issue examined in this study. Previous

Restricted access
Ted M. Uecker, Susan D. Kaspari, Keith N. Musselman, and S. McKenzie Skiles

charred trees contributes to snow albedo reductions and how this effect varies with burn age and burn severity. These dynamics are not currently considered in operational snowmelt forecasting, or in Earth system models (e.g., Li et al. 2013 ). Resolving the effects of wildfire on snowpack is of critical importance in the western United States and particularly in the Cascade Range, where snow water resources are at exceptional risk of climate change and severe wildfire ( Nolin and Daly 2006 ; Allen

Restricted access
Dan Li, Elie Bou-Zeid, Mary Lynn Baeck, Stephen Jessup, and James A. Smith

of urbanization on the surface energy balance and rainfall climatology [see Shephard (2005) for a review and Smith et al. (2012) for analyses in the Baltimore study region]. Three main mechanisms that are responsible for urban modification of precipitation are urban heat island effects (e.g., Bornstein and Lin 2000 ; Dixon and Mote 2003 ; Lin et al. 2011 ), urban canopy effects (e.g., Loose and Bornstein 1977 ; Miao et al. 2011 ; Zhang et al. 2011 ), and urban aerosol effects (e

Restricted access
Jamie Dyer and Andrew Mercer

driven by anthropogenic modification of the land surface warrants further research, especially considering the stability of the pattern over time as seen by the lack of a slope in the associated score time series with generally positive (although low) magnitude values in most years. An important aspect of the data that must be addressed with respect to the seasonal precipitation analysis is the apparent increase in variability after 2003 in nearly all of the retained RPC score time series. As

Restricted access
Dudley B. Chelton and Craig M. Risien

geographical patterns of precipitation anomalies on time scales ranging from monthly to interannual in six regions along the west coast of North America. The PDSI ( Palmer 1965 ; Alley 1984 ) and MCDI ( Williams et al. 2017 ) incorporate the effects of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and runoff. Their use for studies of geographical patterns of drought variability is limited by the fact that they capture a single “intrinsic” time scale of long-term drought variability that varies from region to region

Restricted access
Natalie Teale and David A. Robinson

precipitation days decreased alongside an increase in very heavy precipitation over the past 30 years. These results indicate that the precipitation regime of the region is changing. One potential explanation for the changing Northeast precipitation regime is a change in the magnitude of water vapor delivered to the region. Precipitation is dependent on an atmospheric moisture source to condense and precipitate. Warmer temperatures, such as those observed and projected in models of anthropogenic global

Restricted access
Chuanhao Wu, Pat J.-F. Yeh, Yi-Ying Chen, Bill X. Hu, and Guoru Huang

.5° and 2.0°C warming using 13 global climate models (GCMs) participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). There are generally consistent findings from Su et al. (2018) and Lehner et al. (2017) in that both studies highlighted that constraining anthropogenic warming to 1.5°C can reduce future drought risk relative to 2.0°C warming, but more efforts using alternative climate models are necessary to ensure the robustness of these findings. Recent research (e.g., Wang et

Restricted access
Erin Dougherty, Erin Sherman, and Kristen L. Rasmussen

thermodynamic rather than dynamic effects, supporting the results of Dettinger (2011) . Due to the changing thermodynamic effects on ARs in a future climate, future AR extreme precipitation is projected to increase by 100%–200% in the fall and winter along the West Coast ( Gao et al. 2015 ), and upward of 200% in a case study of a flood-producing AR in the Pacific Northwest due to more orographic enhancement in a future climate ( Mahoney et al. 2018 ). These thermodynamic changes in a future climate also

Restricted access