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Eric A. Smith

The First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) has produced a wealth of scientific results associated with land–atmosphere interactions and the use of remotely sensed measurements to study interactions at the land–atmosphere interface. This special issue of the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences consists of 13 papers investigating various subjects from surface forcing of planetary boundary layer circulations, surface flux modeling-parameterization–retrieval methods, biotic effects on boundary layer

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Greg J. Holland, Yuqing Wang, and Mark Lander

of the wind and pressure profiles in hurricanes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 1212-1218.--., and G. S. Dietachmayer, 1993: On the interaction of tropical cyclone scale vortices, llI: Continuous barotropic vortices. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 119, 1379-1381. , and M. Lander, 1993: On the meandering nature of tropical cyclones. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 1254-1266.Hopfinger, E. J., and G. J. F. van Heijst, 1993: Vortices in rotating fluids. Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 25, 241-289.Khandekar, M. L., and G. V

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Dorian S. Abbot and Kerry A. Emanuel

. It requires the interaction between the land, ocean, and atmosphere and would not occur if both columns were over either land or ocean. The oscillation operates without a seasonal cycle imposed on the system. It is entirely dependent on the internal dynamics of the system, which involve land soil moisture, evaporation, precipitation, circulation, and advection of atmospheric water vapor. The model is described in section 2 . Results are presented in section 3 . A discussion is offered in

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N. Cubukcu, R. L. Pfeffer, and D. E. Dietrich

purpose we also treat all land regions as flat surfaces. Cumulus convection in the atmosphere is parameterized with the modified Kuo scheme. When there is no cumulus convection, and the relative humidity is greater than 96%, stable latent heating is turned on. Radiation is neglected in the model. 4. Coupling Air–sea interactions affect both the ocean and the hurricane. Hurricanes transmit energy, momentum, and vorticity to the water below, creating local oceanic perturbations, the intensities of which

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Denise Stephenson-Graves

months of Nimbus 6 satellite data with that definedfrom parameterizations of this radiation budget component. These variations are noted when land and watersurface areas are mapped to corresponding areas at the "top" of the atmosphere. Variations of a surfacetemperature-dependent parameterization of emitted longwave radiation originally suggested by Budyko(1969) are considered. The longwave radiation parameterizations indicate small differences between landand water profiles of emitted longwave

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Shigeki Mitsumoto, Hiromasa Ueda, and Hiroyuki Ozoe

, were also investigated and shown tocontribute significantly to the dynamics of the LSB and the transport of a pollutant within it.1. Introduction The land and sea breeze (LSB) circulation is a typ ical local wind with diurnal period. Recently, much attention has been focused on it as a problem of pol lution-related meteorology because an emitted pol lutant accumulates in the atmosphere due to the closed LSB circulation (Anthes and Warner, 1978; Kondo and Gambo, 1979; Ozoe et al., 1983). From

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M. L. Khandekar

tropical cyclones in the western North Pacific, theauthors (Holland and Lander) conclude that the oscillations in the tropical cyclone tracks cannot be explained by. the theories of Yeh and Kuo, which arebased on the interaction of a vortex circulation withmean flow; nor ca~ these oscillations be explained bythe theories of Syono and Futi, which invoke the concept of excitation of inertial oscillations. The purpose of the present comment is to point outthat the oscillatory movement in tropical

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Shang-Ping Xie

toward the west, andtrapped and confined to a small zonal extent off thecoast, as demonstrated by Philander et al. ( 1996, manuscript submitted to J. Climate) with an idealizedAGCM that removes zonal and hemispheric asymmetries in SST. An efficient transmitter that involves boththe atmosphere and the ocean is, thus, necessary to explain the large zonal scale of the observed Pacific NHITCZ. This paper explores and examines ocean-atmosphere interactions that transmit the signals of land geographic

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Gerald F. Herman, Man-Li C. Wu, and Winthrop T. Johnson

. Hemisphere 240 252 -1 -1 2 1S. Hemisphere 249 253 -1 -1 2 2Global 243 ' 253 % -1 -2 2 1JUNE 1980 HERMAN, WUtion from the atmospheres decreases substantiallyand hence averaged surface temperatures decreaseby 5, 2 and 3°C. Spatially averaged atmospherictemperatures behave in the same fashion, overboth land and ocean, i.e., temperatures increaseby 1-2°C without solar interactions and

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Jingfeng Wang, Elfatih A. B. Eltahir, and Rafael L. Bras

the linear theory of Wang et al. (1996) is the theme of section 5 . The conclusions are presented in section 6 . 2. Observed variability of surface sensible heat flux Dry convection in the atmosphere is forced by the diabatic heating resulting from the turbulent sensible heat flux (TSHF) emitted from the land surface. Several field experiments provide useful information about the spatial distribution of TSHF over mesoscale domains. In the region of the California Ozone Deposition Experiment

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