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Ann Bostrom, Rebecca E. Morss, Jeffrey K. Lazo, Julie L. Demuth, Heather Lazrus, and Rebecca Hudson

, public officials, and broadcast media—and their interactions. Data collection methods include semistructured but open-ended interviews, which allow study participants to convey their own ideas about the structure and content of forecast and warning processes, participants in those processes, and the interactions of these, which are together referred to here as the forecast and warning system (see below). Our aims were fourfold: 1) to study the warning system holistically, with an emphasis on how

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Claire Steinweg and William J. Gutowski Jr.

summer temperatures than the GCM choice. During summer in the central United States, atmospheric circulation is relatively weak compared to winter, and local processes such as land–atmosphere interactions and atmospheric convection play a greater role in determining regional climate. Thus, the RCM climates for the central U.S. in summer are not as strongly controlled by GCM boundary conditions as they are in winter. Fig . 3. Heat-stress degree days for (a) the 37.8°C heat advisory threshold and (b

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Scott Greene, Laurence S. Kalkstein, David M. Mills, and Jason Samenow

, the Parallel Climate Model (PCM) was used to complete climate simulations with the results then being downscaled to the appropriate location for each city. The PCM is a global coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) that provides state-of-the-art simulations of the earth’s past, present, and future climate states. Included in the PCM is a series of submodels of the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land. The

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Lynda E. Chambers, Roan D. Plotz, Siosinamele Lui, Faapisa Aiono, Tile Tofaeono, David Hiriasia, Lloyd Tahani, ‘Ofa Fa’anunu, Seluvaia Finaulahi, and Albert Willy

for some countries and regions, for example, Australia ( Mondragón 2014 ; http://www.bom.gov.au/iwk/ ; https://www.csiro.au/en/Research/Environment/Land-management/Indigenous/Indigenous-calendars ), there remain significant gaps in where these calendars occur and in the level of detail provided. Differences between calendars can include the number of seasons into which the year is divided and the plants and animals used to mark the change of seasons. National Meteorological Services (NMSs) in

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Johannes Schmetz and W. Paul Menzel

beginning of the meteorological satellite era largely influenced and shaped by Professor Verner Suomi; he married a viable scientific objective (measuring the outgoing longwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere) with technology (a bolometer measuring Earth-reflected and -emitted radiation) that was challenging yet could be realized within the given constraints. The resulting experiment, from Explorer 7 ( Suomi and Parent 1958 ) started the long-term measurement of the earth energy balance that

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Johnathan P. Kirk and Gordon A. Cromley

. Quiring , O. W. Frauenfeld , and A. S. Rapp , 2015 : Synoptic conditions related to soil moisture-atmosphere interactions and unorganized convection in Oklahoma . J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. , 120 , 11 519 – 11 535 , doi: 10.1002/2015JD023975 . 10.1002/2015JD023975 Goodchild , M. F. , and L. L. Hill , 2008 : Introduction to digital gazetteer research . Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci. , 22 , 1039 – 1044 , doi: 10.1080/13658810701850497 . 10.1080/13658810701850497 Guttman , L. , 1954 : Some

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Barbara Millet, Andrew P. Carter, Kenneth Broad, Alberto Cairo, Scotney D. Evans, and Sharanya J. Majumdar

of visual cognitive mechanisms is critical (e.g., Padilla et al. 2018 ). Furthermore, significant additional research needs to be conducted into the complex interaction between the heuristics and biases tentatively identified by JDM research with the complex cultural and social factors influencing how different individuals and groups understand and act upon risk. Table 1. Heuristics and biases. 5. Mental models of risk While JDM research tends to focus on identifying, typically in controlled

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B. S. Felzer, Carol R. Ember, R. Cheng, and M. Jiang

−1 , respectively (mean T + = 0.78 for R20S and 0.72 for R10S), whereas other indices performed relatively poorly, suggesting that the ability to hindcast flooding may be associated with some antecedent soil moisture conditions. We further explore this by using a process-based land surface model (TEM) to include soil moisture conditions ( Fig. S4 of the online supplemental material). TEM is a prognostically based numerical model of biogeochemical processes between vegetation, soils, and the

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Jonathan Friedrich, Jannik Stahl, Gijsbert Hoogendoorn, and Jennifer M. Fitchett

tourism activities focusing on the dimensions of exposure and sensitivity. To achieve this, existing climate data and information on the specific needs and perceptions of tourists are imperative. The primary benefit of the “hazard–activity pairs” approach is the possible integration of many different types of climate change impacts within a single conceptual framework. This is exemplarily applied by Kilungu et al. (2019) in a study on the relation of land-cover changes and touristic activities in

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Marcos Samuel Matias Ribeiro, Lara de Melo Barbosa Andrade, Maria Helena Constantino Spyrides, Kellen Carla Lima, Pollyane Evangelista da Silva, Douglas Toledo Batista, and Idemauro Antônio Rodrigues de Lara

1. Introduction Disasters result from the combination of natural hazards and exposed population, comprising social, environmental, geological, physical, and economic vulnerability and insufficient response capacity ( Freitas et al. 2012 ; Chmutina and von Meding 2019 ; United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction 2020 ). These events engage both natural and social processes, impacting society according to the pattern of interaction between the natural event and the social organization

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