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James J. Hack and Wayne H. Schubert

1404 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME ~0~Lateral Bo.undary Conditions for Tropical Cyclone Models JAMES J. HACK AND WAYNE H. SCHUBERTDepartment of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80523(Manuscript received 20 April 1980, in final form 3 March 1981) Under certain circumstances a large fraction of the energy generated by the release of latent heat ina tropical cyclone can be partitioned to

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David W. Pierce

1552 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 26Reducing Phase and Amplitude Errors in Restoring Boundary Conditions DAVID W. I>IERCEClimate Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography. La Jolla, California(Manuscript received 11 August 1995, in final form 21 February 1996)ABSTRACT Restoring boundary conditions are often used to drive ocean general circulation models

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H. Volland and H. G. Mayr

S~:PT~:~mER1972 H. VOLLAND AND H. G. MAYR 1143The l~roblem of the Boundary Conditions in Thermosphere Dynamics H. VO~,L~d~D Astronomical Institutes, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany ^~D H. G. M^-~Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbdt, Md.(Manuscript received 17 January 1972, in revised form 13 April 1972)ABSTRACT The unique solution of tidal wave propagation within the thermosphere depends

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M. A. Shapiro and James J. O'Brien

JUNE1970 M. A. SHAPIRO AND JAMES J. O'BRIEN 345Boundary Conditions for Fine-Mesh Limited-Area Forecasts M. A. S~AmRo At~l) J~ES J. O'BR~F~XtNational Center for Atmospheric Research? Boulder, Colo.(Manuscript received 21 October 1969, in revised form 20 February 1970)ABSTRACT A fine-mesh, limited-area, nondivergent barotropic forecast is initialized with fine-scale wind data withtime-variant lateral

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David R. Smith

648 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VoL 44, No. 3Effect of Boundary Conditions on Numerically Simulated Tornado-like Vortices DAVID R. SMITHDepartment of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907(Manuscript received 9 October 1985, in final form 29 September 1986) ABSTRAC~ The boundary conditions for Rotunno's numerical model

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Vijayant Kumar, Gunilla Svensson, A. A. M. Holtslag, Charles Meneveau, and Marc B. Parlange

focus of the majority of the above-mentioned LES studies has been subgrid-scale modeling, analyzing characteristic features of quasi-steady ABLs, and/or performance testing of existing parameterizations. The LES is inherently superior to SCMs in terms of resolving the full three-dimensional structure of the turbulent flow field, but the quality of both LES and SCM results is still heavily dependent on the surface flux boundary conditions and the imposed geostrophic wind. Therefore, to develop LES

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Nirnimesh Kumar, Douglas L. Cahl, Sean C. Crosby, and George Voulgaris

observations is not sufficient to provide adequate wave boundary conditions for relatively large-scale (10 2 –10 3 km), regional, coupled ocean circulation and wave model simulations or to estimate Stokes drift with sufficient spatial resolution. On the other hand, large-scale, near-surface Lagrangian (i.e., Eulerian mean + Stokes drift) current estimates are routinely obtained through the use of high-frequency (HF) radars ( Harlan et al. 2010 ). These current estimates can be assimilated into numerical

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I. Shulman and James K. Lewis

1006 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME25Optimization Approach to the Treatment of Open Boundary Conditions I. SHULMANCenter for Ocean and.4tmospheric Modeling, University of Southern Misst~sippL Stennis Space Center, Mississippi JAMES K. LEW~SOcean Physics Research and Development, Long Beach, Mississippi15 February 1994 and 26 August 1994 A solution to an

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Ryan D. Torn, Gregory J. Hakim, and Chris Snyder

address this issue of ensemble boundary conditions for limited-area EnKFs by exploring a range of practical options. Previous work on limited-area modeling has shown that lateral boundary conditions affect solutions over the entire domain ( Warner et al. 1997 ). Predictability on limited-area domains is distinct from global domains in that growing errors may be advected out of the domain, which along with accurate boundary conditions on inflow boundaries may lead to enhanced predictability relative to

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A. Timmermann, S. J. Lorenz, S-I. An, A. Clement, and S-P. Xie

Pacific. Our focus is on the relevant mechanisms rather than on the detailed past climate trajectory. Hence, the results should not be directly compared to paleo-proxy records for ENSO. Further studies have to be conducted in the future to take into account the role of other time-varying boundary conditions ( Timm and Timmermann 2007 ). The paper is organized as follows. In section 2 the CGCM is described. Section 3 presents the basic mechanism of orbitally driven ENSO variance changes. In

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