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Richard Fernandes, Vladimir Korolevych, and Shusen Wang

a Changing Climate.” This work was partially supported by the Canadian Space Agency under a Government Related Initiative Program (GRIP) grant to CCRS. The authors thank Dr. Yu Zhang and Dr. Andrew Davidson for their help with editing and critical review of the manuscript at CCRS. REFERENCES Abdul Aziz, O. I. , and Burn D. H. , 2006 : Trends and variability in the hydrological regime of the Mackenzie River basin. J. Hydrol. , 319 , 282 – 294 . 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.06.039 Akinremi, O

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Christin Eriksson, Anders Omstedt, James E. Overland, Donald B. Percival, and Harold O. Mofjeld

sudden regime-like shifts. With the dictionary so defined, MP is useful for picking out abrupt changes or events in climate time series. Details of the method are provided as appendix B . MP provides an additive decomposition of a time series and guarantees a decrease in the sum of squares of the residuals at each successive step of the sequential fitting of a time series. By successively comparing the residuals at a given step to the vectors in the dictionary, we build up a picture of what

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Leif M. Swenson and Richard Grotjahn

.1007/BF00337288 Kottek , M. , J. Grieser , C. Beck , B. Rudolf , and F. Rubel , 2006 : World map of the Koppen–Geiger climate classification updated . Meteor. Z. , 15 , 259 – 263 , https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130 . 10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130 Kunkel , K. E. , S. A. Changnon , and R. T. Shealy , 1993 : Temporal and spatial characteristics of heavy-precipitation events in the Midwest . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 121 , 858 – 866 , https://doi.org/10

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Michael Weston, Marouane Temimi, Roelof Burger, and Stuart Piketh

; Bartoková et al. 2012 ). In summary, fog formation requires a land–sea-breeze circulation, calm conditions, and a nocturnal surface inversion layer. These conditions fall under the radiation fog classification described by Tardif and Rasmussen (2007) . During the day, the sea breeze transports moisture from over the gulf toward the land ( Fig. 2 ) and can extend up to 130 km inland based on in situ observations ( Eager et al. 2008 ). However, fog has been observed up to 200 km inland from Abu Dhabi

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Anna-Maria Tilg, Flemming Vejen, Charlotte Bay Hasager, and Morten Nielsen

al. 2013 ; Mishnaevsky 2019 ) and the rotation of the blades, which adds significant additional velocity for the drop impact ( Amirzadeh et al. 2017 ). Bech et al. (2018) propose to reduce the tip speed of the wind turbine blades during severe rain events to reduce leading edge erosion (LEE). Detailed quantification of the rain climate, in particular of KE and drop size distribution (DSD) as well as its interaction with wind speed in different environments is needed for improved understanding

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Pawel Netzel and Tomasz Stepinski

1. Introduction Global climate classification schemes aim to identify distinct climate types and map their geographical extents. By discretizing a multitude of local climates (LCs) into a manageable number of climate types (CTs; a list of all acronyms is given in Table 1 ), classification simplifies the spatial variability of climates into a form that is more meaningful and easier to analyze. Thus, climate classification provides intuitive and valuable insight into the relationships between

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Tobias Spiegl and Ulrike Langematz

the baseline period for the climate change periods of (a),(d) 2016–35, (b),(e) 2046–65, and (c),(f) 2076–95 for (a)–(c) the weak GSM simulation and (d)–(f) the strong GSM simulation. The black number on the bottom-left side of each panel represents the global mean difference. Table 2. SED sum values in the REF simulation and relative differences (%) between the GSM and the REF simulations for the climate change periods of 2016–35, 2046–65, and 2076–95. The classification of hot spots

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Richard Seager, Timothy J. Osborn, Yochanan Kushnir, Isla R. Simpson, Jennifer Nakamura, and Haibo Liu

-scale dynamics, it is not surprising that there are four other regions of the world with Mediterranean-type climates. These are the west coast of North America from northern Mexico to Washington State, central Chile, the far southwest tip of southern Africa, and southwest Australia. All these regions have the same winter-dominated precipitation regime, temperate winter climates and hot or warm, dry summers. The climatological similarity of the world’s Mediterranean-type climate regions (MCRs) translates into

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Benjamin Pohl, Bastien Dieppois, Julien Crétat, Damian Lawler, and Mathieu Rouault

regimes: even though their mean anomaly fields do not significantly change at the interannual and decadal scales, they can show substantial changes from one day (ascribed to a given regime) to another. This issue concerns all classification studies, which aim to discretize, into a limited number of recurrent configurations, a continuous phenomenon—namely, spatial and temporal climate variability. By illustrating and ranking the importance of these low-frequency modes in modulating short-lived synoptic

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James V. Rudolph, Katja Friedrich, and Urs Germann

the Alps as revealed by weather radar . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 136 , 222 – 238 . Plaut , G. , and E. Simonnet , 2001 : Large-scale circulation classification, weather regimes, and local climate over France, the Alps, and western Europe . Climate Res. , 17 , 303 – 324 . Ranzi , R. , M. Zappa , and B. Bacchi , 2007 : Hydrological aspects of the Mesoscale Alpine Programme: Findings from field experiments and simulations . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 133 , 867 – 880

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