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Masakazu Yoshimori and Anthony J. Broccoli

-sided PRP feedback analysis, Δ R i is estimated as follows: where R is net radiative flux at the tropopause. Here superscripts (0) and (1) denote the control and perturbation experiments, respectively; x represents a forcing constituent such as CO 2 ; and μ i represents meteorological fields that are associated with the i th feedback process. The actual computation is performed using the radiative transfer part of the GCM code. Water vapor, cloud, surface albedo, and total (surface + air

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Philip E. Ardanuy, Larry L. Stowe, Arnold Gruber, Mitchell Weiss, and Craig S. Long

766 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE VOLUM-2Longwave Cloud Radiative Forcing as Determined from Nimbus-7 Observations PHILIP E. ARDANUYResearch and Data Systems Corporation, Greenbelt. Maryland LARRY L. STOWE AND ARNOLD GRUBER~4tmospheric Sciences Branch, NO22 /NESDIS, Washington, DC MITCHELL WEISSResearch and Data Systems Corporation. Greenbelt, Maryland CRAIG S. LONG

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Bryan C. Weare

atmosphere and the surface. Since radiative feedbacks are thought to be critical for past and future climate changes ( Houghton et al. 1996 ), it seems essential to thoroughly evaluate the utility of the NCEP–NCAR analyses of these radiative variables. This paper makes comparisons with Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) observations of the annual means, seasonal cycles, and a short-term climate change event for the long- and shortwave radiative cloud forcing at the top of the atmosphere. To

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Ivana Cvijanovic, Peter L. Langen, Eigil Kaas, and Peter D. Ditlevsen

the east tropical Pacific (and north tropical Atlantic and Pacific) further enhance the difference in interhemispheric energy budgets, increasing the requirement for northward atmospheric heat transport. Origins of the TOA energy flux changes are investigated in detail in section 3b by addressing the changes in cloud radiative forcing and in section 3c , using the radiative kernel technique ( Soden et al. 2008 ; Shell et al. 2008 ), which allows the effects of key feedbacks due to changes in

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Johannes Schmetz, Mohamed Mhita, and Leo Van De Berg

784 . JOURNAL OF CLIMATE VOLUME3METEOSAT Observations of Longwave Cloud-Radiative Forcing for April 1985 JOHANNES SCHMETZ, MOHAMED MHITA AND LEO VAN DE BERGEuropean Space Agency ( ESA , European Space Operations Centre ( ESOC ), Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany(Manuscript received 15 August 1989, in final form 23 January 1990)ABSTRACT Outgoing Iongwave radiative

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Brian Soden and Eui-Seok Chung

1. Introduction Feedbacks associated with the coupled response of the circulation and clouds are recognized as the primary cause of the intermodel spread in climate sensitivity (e.g., Stevens and Bony 2013 ). Estimates of the global-mean cloud feedback range from neutral to strongly positive in response to global surface warming arising from CO 2 forcing (e.g., Soden and Held 2006 ; Soden et al. 2008 ; Zelinka et al. 2013 , 2016 ; Vial et al. 2013 ; Chung and Soden 2015 ). Realistic

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Timothy Glotfelty, Kiran Alapaty, Jian He, Patrick Hawbecker, Xiaoliang Song, and Guang Zhang

validity of the simulations. Kooperman et al. (2012) addressed the trade-off of reduced climate errors and dampened aerosol effects by weakly nudging their aerosol baseline and sensitivity simulations toward an idealized free-run climate simulation using a relaxation coefficient that approximates a time scale of 6 h. This time scale is longer than the lifetime of a cloud and is thus suppressing secondary feedbacks rather than actual ACI radiative forcing ( Kooperman et al. 2012 ). The FDDA free

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Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Markus Petters, and Ulrike Lohmann

anthropogenic sulfate aerosol forcing (W m −2 ) (global = 1.8 W m −2 ). [Figure and caption from Kiehl and Briegleb (1993) . Reprinted with permission from AAAS.] Charlson et al. (1992) included in their analysis of aerosol climate forcing a discussion of the “indirect radiative influence” of sulfate aerosols that arises due to the interactions of atmospheric particles with cloud formation and development. Sufficiently large numbers of particles are always present in the atmosphere, such that all water

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Max Popp, Hauke Schmidt, and Jochem Marotzke

1. Introduction In the 1960s, the idea was advanced that, under strong radiative forcing, a runaway water vapor feedback may occur, which may lead to the evaporation of all oceans on an Earthlike planet (e.g., Gold 1964 ; Komabyashi 1967 ; Ingersoll 1969 )—the runaway greenhouse. The idea was used to explain how Venus could have lost most of its water and could have ended up with the inhospitable atmosphere that it has today. Even though 50 years have passed, the role of clouds in the

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Junyan Xiong, Jun Yang, and Ji Nie

branches of the meridional mean circulation ( Figs. 4b,c ). The midlatitude cloud belt is enhanced and shifts equatorward, consistent with the equatorward shift of the storm track ( Figs. 5b,c ). In the polar region, the cloud fraction decreases at all levels, consistent with the increased static stability associated with the subsidence of the polar cell ( Figs. 4b,c ). The responses of clouds induce positive shortwave radiative forcing in the subtropics and negative radiative forcing in the middle

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