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H. M. Stommel and W. R. Young

--- 1/(y) where (y) isthe average of y(t) over a period. For the small orbitin Fig. 2a R = 11.7--a large value. The two largerovals encircle both attractors. They have P0 equal to 5and 10 with R = 2.4 and 2.1, respectively. As the amplitude of the forcing increases, (y) approaches 1/2, orequivalently R approaches 2. Evidently the attractorsat the center of the large-amplitude orbit are so distantthat they are seen as a single point at y = 1/2.b. Stochastic forcing The cloud of points in Fig. 2b

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Ramsey R. Harcourt and Eric A. D’Asaro

explain the enhanced level of VKE. Here, large-eddy simulations (LESs) are used to develop accurate scalings for the VKE enhancement under realistic wind and wave forcing. a. The Craik–Leibovich mechanism and Langmuir turbulence In the CL mechanism, Langmuir circulations arise from the interaction of the Stokes drift u S of surface waves and wave-averaged currents driven by a surface stress τ 0 = | τ 0 | = ρ w u * 2 , where u * is the friction velocity in water of density ρ w (see Thorpe 2004

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Yangxing Zheng, George N. Kiladis, Toshiaki Shinoda, E. Joseph Metzger, Harley E. Hurlburt, Jialin Lin, and Benjamin S. Giese

1. Introduction Sea surface temperature (SST) in the southeast Pacific near the coasts of Peru and Chile is colder than at any comparable latitude elsewhere. It is believed that these cold waters in the southeast Pacific play an important role in the formation and maintenance of persistent stratocumulus/stratus cloud decks and that these clouds have a significant impact on regional and global climate (e.g., Ma et al. 1996 ; Miller 1997 ; Gordon et al. 2000 ; Xie 2004 ). Thus, it is

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Sybren S. Drijfhout and Fred H. Walsteijn

temperature is advected by the mean wind, which is derived from the wind stress pattern used to force the ocean model. Here Q D is a damping term to parameterize unresolved processes, such as baroclinic processes, turbulence, and cloud/radiation processes. This damping term consists of damping the anomalous air temperature with a timescale of ten days, a typical timescale for atmospheric cyclones, Q D = − ρ A c A p H T A an /(10 days). (2.5) Finally, the anomalous heat flux Q an is calculated from

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William G. Large and Peter R. Gent

by Chen et al. (1994b) and will not be repeated here. However, Seager et al. (1988) raise the issue of heat flux formulations and argue for what we will term “SST” forcing where the heat flux only depends on model SST and on specified wind speed and cloud cover. Their concern is that, if specified atmospheric parameters such as air temperature and humidity, which are directly controlled by the ocean, are used in the heat flux formulation, then the SST is to a large extent also specified. Such

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Norman T. Camp and Russell L. Elsberry

increasesin wind speed. Three-hourly observations of sea surface temperature, air temperature, dew point, windspeed and visual estimates of total cloud cover wereprovided by the National Weather Records Center.The bulk aerodynamic and radiative flux formulasused to calculate the atmospheric forcing may befound in Elsberry and Camp (1978). Mechanicalbathythermograph (MBT) records available from theNational Oceanographic Data Center usually numbered less than a few hundred in each four-monthperiod. Many of

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Laurie L. Trenary and Weiqing Han

1. Introduction In the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, equatorial upwelling occurs in the eastern basin due to easterly trade wind forcing. In contrast, in the tropical Indian Ocean upwelling primarily occurs in the southwest tropical basin between 5° and 12°S and east of 50°E, where the surface dynamic height is low ( Donguy and Meyers 1995 ) and the thermocline is relatively shallow ( Woodberry et al. 1989 ; McCreary et al. 1993 ; Masumoto and Meyers 1998 ; Xie et al. 2002 ; Rao and

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Yuanlong Li, Weiqing Han, Toshiaki Shinoda, Chunzai Wang, M. Ravichandran, and Jih-Wang Wang

. P. Stevens , A. J. Matthews , and K. J. Heywood , 2012b : Dynamical ocean forcing of the Madden–Julian oscillation at lead times of up to five months . J. Climate , 25 , 2824 – 2842 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00268.1 . Wentz , F. J. , C. Gentemann , D. Smith , and D. Chelton , 2000 : Satellite measurements of sea surface temperature through clouds . Science , 288 , 847 – 850 , doi: 10.1126/science.288.5467.847 . Wheeler , M. C. , and H. H. Hendon , 2004 : An all

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Ramsey R. Harcourt

salinity fluxes and the subsurface profiles of shear and stability to predict turbulent vertical eddy fluxes. A notable independence from surface wave forcing stems from their introduction to oceanographic applications from rigid-wall atmospheric, engineering, and laboratory boundary layers. Observations (obs) show that open-ocean and coastal free-surface boundary layers differ significantly from wall-bounded layers in several ways attributable to surface waves, including (obs 1) near

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Renellys C. Perez, Dudley B. Chelton, and Robert N. Miller

comparison of the lower-right panel of Figs. 5 and 7 , this fit captures the general features of the mean tropical Pacific winds. Constant in time but spatially varying precipitation and heat flux forcing are applied at the surface to avoid introducing buoyancy-forced temporal variability. The mean surface heat flux is computed via the bulk formula of Seager et al. (1988) based on the mean cloud coverage from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project climatology ( Rossow and Schiffer

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