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Takamichi Shoji, Yuki Kanno, Toshiki Iwasaki, and Koutarou Takaya

1. Introduction In the East Asian winter monsoon, severe intermittent cold air outbreaks (CAOs), occasionally referred to as cold surges, frequently strike with severe weather (e.g., Chang et al. 1979 ; Chang and Lau 1982 ; Ding and Krishnamurti 1987 ; Zhang et al. 1997 ; Jeong and Ho 2005 ; Yoshikane and Kimura 2008 ). Typically, the Siberian high travels to East Asia and the South China Sea, together with a cold air mass generated over Eurasia. CAOs commonly accompany sharp temperature

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Toshiki Iwasaki, Takamichi Shoji, Yuki Kanno, Masahiro Sawada, Masashi Ujiie, and Koutarou Takaya

feature of the polar cold airmass streams. In this work, the two main streams identified in the climatological mean states are consistent with pathways of intermittent cold surges reported in many previous works (e.g., Dallavalle and Bosart 1975 ; Chang et al. 1979 ; Joung and Hitchman 1982 ; Lau and Lau 1984 ). The routing of the main streams can be seen as follows: In the case of the EA stream, the cold air mass originates because of the diabatic cooling over the Eurasian continent. High

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Sylvain Mailler and François Lott

cold surges]. Although the intrusion of cold anticyclonic air into subtropical latitudes can occur in the absence of mountains ( Sprenger et al. 2013 ), the mountain forcing dynamically amplifies and helps to focus them regionally ( Garreaud 2001 ). In an f -plane geometry, this dynamical forcing can be measured as the integral over the mountain surface of the pressure force exerted on the atmosphere and of the surface stresses due to the boundary layer and subgrid-scale orography (SSO

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Lei Song and Renguang Wu

. Xie , 2011 : Large-scale circulation anomalies associated with persistent low temperature over southern China in January 2008 . Atmos. Sci. Lett. , 12 , 273 – 280 , . 10.1002/asl.333 Ding , Y. , 1990 : Build-up, air mass transformation and propagation of Siberian high and its relations to cold surge in East Asia . Meteor. Atmos. Phys. , 44 , 281 – 292 , . 10.1007/BF01026822 Ding , Y. , and T. N. Krishnamurti

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See Yee Lim, Charline Marzin, Prince Xavier, Chih-Pei Chang, and Bertrand Timbal

.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1984)112<0955:RCCAWA>2.0.CO;2 Dee , D. , and Coauthors , 2011 : The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 137 , 553 – 597 , doi: 10.1002/qj.828 . 10.1002/qj.828 Ding , Y. H. , 1990 : Build-up, air mass transformation and propagation of Siberian high and its relations to cold surge in East Asia . Meteor. Atmos. Phys. , 44 , 281 – 292 , doi: 10.1007/BF01026822 . 10.1007/BF01026822

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Qian Liu, Guixing Chen, Lin Wang, Yuki Kanno, and Toshiki Iwasaki

to as cold air outbreaks (CAOs) or cold surges. In East Asia, CAOs have an occurrence frequency of approximately 10 times per year ( Chen et al. 2004 ; Wang and Ding 2006 ). They usually originate from the Siberian high and sometimes penetrate deeply into the equatorial region ( Chang et al. 1979 ; Ding 1990 ). The southward flux of cold airmasses during CAOs transports a large amount of air, producing intense heat and moisture exchange and dominating the weather over the mid- and low latitudes

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156 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW AUQUST 1950AN UNUSUAL SURGE OF COLD AIR ACROSS THE NORTHWESTUNITED STATES ON AUGUST 22 AND 23, 1950H. DEAN PARRY AND LEWIS C. NORTONWBAN Analysis Center, U. S. Weather BureauWashington, D. C.INTRODUCTIONOne of the few marked weather changes which occurredin the United States during the relatively inactive monthof August 1950 was the sharp drop in temperatures whichtook place in the northwestern States on August 22 and23. For example, on August 22 the maximum tempera

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Yuta Ando, Masayo Ogi, and Yoshihiro Tachibana

control over variations of air temperatures over Japan, focusing on the anomalous cold winter of 2012/13 in the Northern Hemisphere. One of most important components of atmospheric circulation in the winter over the Northern Hemisphere is the Arctic Oscillation (AO) as defined by Thompson and Wallace (1998) . The winter AO is strongly coupled with SAT fluctuations over midlatitudes ( Thompson and Wallace 2000 ). The negative phase of the AO directly influences the occurrence of cold surges over East

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Jiachuan Yang and Elie Bou-Zeid

makers on the need for appropriate mitigation measures that limit summertime UHI with negligible change to the wintertime UHI. 2. Method a. Temperature data The early 2014 North American cold wave was selected as our study period. The extreme event was caused by a southward-moving cold air mass resulting from an atypical polar vortex, which reached as far south as Dallas, Texas, and set more than 49 record lows on 7 January across the United States. We collected hourly air temperature data at weather

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Muhammad Rais Abdillah, Yuki Kanno, and Toshiki Iwasaki

.1175/JAS-D-13-058.1 Jeong , J.-H. , C.-H. Ho , B.-M. Kim , and W.-T. Kwon , 2005 : Influence of the Madden–Julian oscillation on wintertime surface air temperature and cold surges in east Asia . J. Geophys. Res. , 110 , D11104 , doi: 10.1029/2004JD005408 . 10.1029/2004JD005408 Jeong , J.-H. , B.-M. Kim , C.-H. Ho , and Y.-H. Noh , 2008 : Systematic variation in wintertime precipitation in East Asia by MJO-induced extratropical vertical motion . J. Climate , 21 , 788 – 801

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