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Yann Friocourt, Sybren Drijfhout, and Bruno Blanke

1. Introduction The northeastern Atlantic Ocean off western Europe is a relatively sluggish area where the mean circulation is generally dominated by the mesoscale activity. Typical current velocities seldom exceed a few centimeters per second, except in the immediate vicinity of the continental slope where they locally can reach up to 30 cm −1 . Indeed, observations carried out along the continental margin in the Bay of Biscay and along the Iberian Peninsula report a baroclinic system of slope

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Jana Sillmann, Mischa Croci-Maspoli, Malaak Kallache, and Richard W. Katz

1. Introduction Focusing on extreme cold temperatures seems not so compelling in the context of global warming. However, the recent winters serve as a good example of the impact of persistent cold outbreaks and anomalous snow amounts in Europe and North America, which posed a challenge for communities, transportation services, and the economy. Cattiaux et al. (2010) , Seager et al. (2010) , and Wang et al. (2010) have associated the anomalous winter of 2009/10 with large-scale atmospheric

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Ngar-Cheung Lau and Mary Jo Nath

twentieth to the twenty-first century. Heat waves occur not only in North America, but are also observed in many other parts of the world. For instance, much attention has been devoted to the behavior of this phenomenon in the European sector. The incidence of the severe HW in western Europe in 2003 ( Fink et al. 2004 ; Black et al. 2004 ), and in western Russia in 2010 ( Dole et al. 2011 ), is particularly noteworthy. The association of European HW with regional and large-scale circulation patterns

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K. Trusilova, M. Jung, G. Churkina, U. Karstens, M. Heimann, and M. Claussen

-surface temperature increased by 0.8 K in summer and by 1.0 K in winter, on average. However, the authors performed a model simulation on a coarse 36-km scale and used a very simple parameterization for representing urban land. In this study, we examine impacts of the urban land use in Europe on local and regional scales. We update the urban mask for Europe and use a regional model with a modified land surface scheme for a more detailed representation of urban land at the spatial scale of 10 km. We focus on

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Richard Seager, Haibo Liu, Yochanan Kushnir, Timothy J. Osborn, Isla R. Simpson, Colin R. Kelley, and Jennifer Nakamura

1. Introduction The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is a seesaw in pressure between the subpolar Icelandic low and the subtropical Azores high regions of the North Atlantic Ocean. The impacts of anomalies in the strength of the Icelandic low on temperatures in Greenland and Denmark had been noticed as far back as the 1770s (see van Loon and Rogers 1978 ). When the Icelandic low is strong, cyclonic flow brings cold northerly air to Greenland and warm southerly air to northwestern Europe

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Giuseppe Zappa and Theodore G. Shepherd

are physically anchored on the impact that remote drivers and global teleconnections have on the regional climate. Nonetheless, these global storylines can be tailored to inform specific impact-related climate aspects. In particular, we will here describe storylines characterizing a range of plausible scenarios for two impact-related aspects of European climate: cold-season Mediterranean precipitation and central European windiness. 2. Methods a. CMIP5 models and data 32 CMIP5 models (see Table 1

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Enrico Scoccimarro, Gabriele Villarini, Marcello Vichi, Matteo Zampieri, Pier Giuseppe Fogli, Alessio Bellucci, and Silvio Gualdi

parameters at different time scales. Most of the analyses of the statistics of intense precipitation events are based on daily or monthly data from both global ocean–atmosphere coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) and regional climate models (RCMs). Many investigations inspecting projected changes of climatological and/or intense/extreme precipitation events over Europe rely on daily climate model data (e.g., Wetherald and Manabe 1999 ; Kharin and Zwiers 2000 ; Hegerl et al. 2004 ; Kharin et al

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Kirsti Jylhä, Heikki Tuomenvirta, Kimmo Ruosteenoja, Hanna Niemi-Hugaerts, Krista Keisu, and Juha A. Karhu

1. Introduction During the twentieth century, from 1901 to 2000, the average surface air temperature in European land areas increased by 0.8 ± 0.3°C ( Luterbacher et al. 2004 ), alongside a global mean warming of 0.74° ± 0.18°C from 1906 to 2006 ( Solomon et al. 2007 ). At the same time, the most extreme climatic zones of the earth in the widely used Köppen classification system showed statistically significant shifts: the global areas covered by tropical climate expanded, whereas the tundra

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Christel Prudhomme, Simon Parry, Jamie Hannaford, Douglas B. Clark, Stefan Hagemann, and Frank Voss

1. Introduction and background There is growing evidence that the hydrological cycle is intensifying (e.g., Huntington 2006 ; Stott et al. 2010 ) as a result of anthropogenically forced climatic change. Generally speaking, at regional to continental scales, two contrasting approaches are used to examine the influence of climate change on the hydrological cycle: through analysis of historical data, to detect emerging trends (e.g., in Europe by Stahl et al. 2010 , in North America by Douglas

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Nicholas P. Klingaman, Brian Hanson, and Daniel J. Leathers

) analyzed the severe 1960/61 winter and concluded that the anomalously high snow depth across North America initiated a positive feedback: deep snow cover altered local cyclogenesis patterns to support below-normal temperatures and further snowfall across the Northern Hemisphere. Later studies generalized these observations and extended them to western European and Eurasian snow cover ( Namias 1978 , 1985 ; Saito and Cohen 2003 ). General circulation models (GCMs) have facilitated the most recent

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