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Kun Yang, Jun Qin, Xiaofeng Guo, Degang Zhou, and Yaoming Ma

1. Introduction It is well recognized that the Tibetan Plateau (TP) provides an elevated heat source for the North Hemisphere ( Flohn 1957 ; Ye and Gao 1979 ), and this elevated heating drives the TP monsoon, enhances the Asian monsoon circulation, and significantly influences precipitation in China ( He et al. 1987 ; Yanai et al. 1992 ; Wu and Zhang 1998 ; Qian et al. 2004 ; Liu et al. 2007 ). The sensible heat flux is a major component of the TP heat source and has been addressed for

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J. Brent Roberts, Franklin R. Robertson, Carol A. Clayson, and Michael G. Bosilovich

1. Introduction The oceans provide a vast repository of both heat and water that are of critical importance to the earth’s hydrologic and energy cycles. Because of their inherent high heat capacity relative to the atmosphere, the global oceans integrate energy exchanges across the atmospheric interface, providing both “memory” of past fluxes and a potential source of predictability for the atmosphere. These exchanges of moisture and heat with the atmosphere vary richly on a wide range of space

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Jeffrey Coogan and Brian Dzwonkowski

for Eq. (1) may no longer be satisfied, and these changes in the salt budget can be examined by where overbars denote depth-averaged salinity s and velocity u ; primes are vertical deviations from the depth-averaged velocity and salinity; K H is the horizontal diffusion; t is time; x is along-estuary distance; and is the along-estuary salinity gradient. On the right-hand side of Eq. (2) , the three terms account for the salinity flux through advection, exchange associated with

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Gang Liu, Yangang Liu, and Satoshi Endo

1. Introduction Surface momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat fluxes are critical for atmospheric processes such as clouds and precipitation, and are often parameterized in a variety of models due to limited grid resolution in these models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ) and general circulation models (GCMs). In numerical models, these turbulent flux parameterizations are collectively referred to as the surface flux parameterization (SFP

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Jiping Liu, Tingyin Xiao, and Liqi Chen

1. Introduction Air–sea fluxes of energy establish the link between ocean surface temperature change and atmospheric circulation variability, and provide mechanisms by which ocean variability is forced by the atmosphere. Accurate knowledge of air–sea flux variability is extremely important for understanding and simulating variations in the coupled ocean–atmosphere system and feedbacks in the climate system (e.g., Curry et al. 2004 ; Frankignoul et al. 2004 ). Nowhere is this knowledge more

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P. Baas, G. J. Steeneveld, B. J. H. van de Wiel, and A. A. M. Holtslag

1. Introduction Flux–gradient relationships are used to relate gradients of mean atmospheric profiles to turbulent fluxes. The concept of flux–gradient relationships has proven to be very useful in estimating surface fluxes both in atmospheric models and from observed profiles. The relevant quantities to relate fluxes and gradients are obtained from dimensional analysis. Consequently, the functional form of the flux–gradient relationships must be found by experiment. Some of the current

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Sergey Gulev, Thomas Jung, and Eberhard Ruprecht

1. Introduction Accurate knowledge of air–sea flux fields is required for global and regional budget studies, forcing ocean general circulation models and analysis of climate variability. Global and regional surface flux fields are presently available from atmospheric modeling, remote sensing, and from the computations of fluxes using voluntary observing ship (VOS) data. Complete space–time coverage of fluxes and related fields are now available from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models

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Xi Chen, Yongqin David Chen, and Zhicai Zhang

1. Introduction In the highly populated Huaihe River plain region in China ( Fig. 1 ), human activities, especially agriculture, influence the hydrological processes, and water resources management must focus on sustainability, tracked based on an accurate understanding of water distribution and fluxes. In other words, water storage in and movement among all dynamically linked reservoirs must be estimated in order to evaluate water availability caused by human impact. This task of modeling the

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Edgar L. Andreas, P. Ola G. Persson, and Jeffrey E. Hare

. The fluxes via these two routes scale differently ( Andreas 1994 ; Andreas and DeCosmo 2002 ). For example, although the Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) version 3.0 bulk flux algorithm ( Fairall et al. 2003 ) has been tuned with flux data collected in wind speeds up to 20 m s −1 and is therefore operationally useful in this wind speed range, it is based strictly on interfacial scaling and thus may not be reliable if it is extrapolated to wind

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Amanda L. Siemann, Nathaniel Chaney, and Eric F. Wood

1. Introduction The partitioning of available energy at the land surface produces the turbulent fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere, including sensible heat flux and latent heat flux, which transfer heat and water, respectively ( Pipunic et al. 2008 ). While these fluxes are measured in situ using eddy covariance in tower networks (e.g., Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2016 ) and during field campaigns (e.g., the Boreal Ecosystem–Atmosphere Study; Sellers et al. 1997 ), satellite

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