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Hyodae Seo

. Recent modeling studies have begun to recognize the importance of mesoscale SST–wind interaction. Hogg et al. (2009) note the strong destabilizing effect by the SST-driven W e on the modeled double-gyre circulation, particularly in the western boundary, where the intergyre potential vorticity flux weakens the flow through the instability of the eastward jet. Similarly, Ma et al. (2016) document that mesoscale SST–wind interaction leads to a substantial dissipation of eddy potential energy over

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Bunmei Taguchi, and Shang-Ping Xie

SST maximum along the Kuroshio strengthens baiu precipitation over the East China Sea. Atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) and atmosphere–ocean GCMs (AOGCMs) have been used to simulate and predict the baiu rainband. Ninomiya et al. (2002) report features of “baiu phase” and “non-baiu phase” in an AGCM, suggesting that the upper jet, moisture flux, and synoptic disturbances are important to reproduce the baiu front, even if the continent–ocean thermal contrast is reasonably maintained

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Masayo Ogi, Bunmei Taguchi, Meiji Honda, David G. Barber, and Søren Rysgaard

-ice extent is negatively correlated with the Amur River discharge on interannual time scales, mainly through the atmospheric circulation change in summer, the season when the discharge peaks ( Ogi et al. 2001 ). This indicates that the Okhotsk sea ice could also be related to the atmospheric conditions in the preceding summer. On the other hand, onset of sea-ice formation is well predicted by local turbulent heat fluxes in relation to atmospheric conditions in the preceding autumn ( Ohshima et al. 2006

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Xiaohui Ma, Ping Chang, R. Saravanan, Raffaele Montuoro, Hisashi Nakamura, Dexing Wu, Xiaopei Lin, and Lixin Wu

1. Introduction It has been recognized for decades that for basin-scale air–sea interactions in midlatitudes, coupling between the atmosphere and ocean is largely linear and passive in nature ( Barsugli and Battisti 1998 ; Frankignoul 1985 ). In this passive air–sea coupling, the ocean responds to white-noise atmospheric internal variability through turbulent air–sea heat fluxes, giving rise to a red-noise response in sea surface temperature (SST; Frankignoul and Hasselmann 1977 ; Hasselmann

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Ryusuke Masunaga, Hisashi Nakamura, Bunmei Taguchi, and Takafumi Miyasaka

1. Introduction The midlatitude western boundary currents, which flow poleward along the western flank of each of the ocean basins, transport an enormous amount of heat from the tropics, releasing it into the midlatitude atmosphere in the form of turbulent sensible heat flux (SHF) and latent heat flux (LHF) while maintaining relatively warm sea surface temperature (SST) along their axes. The midlatitude oceanic frontal zones, which are characterized by steep gradients in SST along the poleward

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Takuya Nakanowatari, Humio Mitsudera, Tatsuo Motoi, Ichiro Ishikawa, Kay I. Ohshima, and Masaaki Wakatsuchi

transported effectively to low latitudes through the NPIW pathway ( Sarmiento et al. 2004 ). It has also been reported that iron, an essential micronutrient for phytoplankton, originates from the OSIW and may lead to abundant biological productivity in the North Pacific ( Nishioka et al. 2007 ). Furthermore, long-term changes in the water mass are likely to be crucial for the carbon cycle and pertinent to global warming issues. The net anthropogenic CO 2 flux from the Okhotsk Sea to the Pacific is

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A. Foussard, G. Lapeyre, and R. Plougonven

( Chelton et al. 2001 , 2004 ; O’Neill et al. 2003 ). It was also revealed through the signature of ocean eddies in turbulent air–sea fluxes of sensible and latent heat ( Bourras et al. 2004 ), or in cloud cover and rain rates ( Frenger et al. 2013 ). The coupling between the atmosphere and narrow oceanic structures has been explored through various analyses of the horizontal momentum budget in the boundary layer based on theoretical models ( Samelson et al. 2006 ; Schneider and Qiu 2015 ) or

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Larry W. O’Neill, Tracy Haack, Dudley B. Chelton, and Eric Skyllingstad

-mean surface wind fields. Time averaging is often thought to mitigate the effects of synoptic weather variability, but these maps suggest otherwise. Despite this apparently strong influence from storms, a relatively robust local atmospheric response to SST is expected in the time-mean winds since the Gulf Stream SST signature is both persistent and spatially confined regardless of the exact response mechanism. Indeed, a strong response of the MABL winds and surface fluxes to the Gulf Stream SST frontal

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Kohei Takatama and Niklas Schneider

–Obukhov scaling for turbulent fluxes at the ocean surface. The model domain covers the East China Sea (10°–46°N, 100°–145°E) with 0.25° × 0.25° horizontal grid and 28 vertical sigma levels. The integration period was 15 winter seasons from 1995 to 2009. The model was integrated from each November to the following February, and we analyzed the output from each December to February period. If not otherwise specified, results show the climatological mean of these 15 winter seasons. For initial and lateral

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Ryu Saiki and Humio Mitsudera

-band formation have been discussed since the 1980s. McPhee (1979 , 1982 , 1983) suggested that an ice edge band may be separated from the top of the ice pack by the reduction of drag between sea ice and ocean owing to intense buoyancy flux by melting when the ice edge moves into warm water. Wadhams (1983) suggested that inhomogeneity of the wave radiation stress in the fetch-limited open waters of various spacing would produce ice bands. The wave radiation stress is concentrated on floes at the

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