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Israel Lopez-Coto, Micheal Hicks, Anna Karion, Ricardo K. Sakai, Belay Demoz, Kuldeep Prasad, and James Whetstone

clear from previous studies that there is no single configuration that works best under all circumstances, and validation for specific areas and periods are required. In this work, we intend to better understand the performance of eight configurations of WRF over the Washington, D.C.–Baltimore area during winter, to uncover similarities and differences in PBL parameterizations regarding PBLH and urban heat island related variables and the impacts on tracer transport with the aim of identifying the

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Robert Schoetter, Julia Hidalgo, Renaud Jougla, Valéry Masson, Mario Rega, and Julien Pergaud

to winter storms ( Pinto et al. 2010 ), ocean modeling ( Cassou et al. 2011 ), and the urban heat island effect ( Hoffmann et al. 2018 ). SDD is thus mainly applied to meteorological phenomena, which are strongly influenced by the prevailing complex topography. The benefit of employing a physically based high-resolution numerical model is highest in these applications. SDD is subject to two different types of uncertainty. On the one hand there is the uncertainty due to biases in the large

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Yu Yan Cui and Benjamin de Foy

1. Introduction Urbanization has caused cities to experience higher temperatures than the surrounding countryside does, a phenomenon known as the urban heat island (UHI). UHIs can enhance the formation, concentration, and transportation of urban ground-level ozone and other air pollutants ( Yoshikado and Tsuchida 1996 ; Saitoh et al. 1996 ; Chen et al. 2003 ). Moreover, summer heat-wave events can exacerbate the mortality resulting from heat stroke and air-quality problems ( Meehl and Stocker

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Xiao-Ming Hu and Ming Xue

1. Introduction In numerous studies, temperatures over urban areas have been found to be typically higher than over surrounding rural areas. This phenomenon is commonly known as the urban heat island (UHI; Oke 1976 , 1981 , 1982 ; Arnfield 2003 ). Because of rapid urbanization during the past few decades around the world, UHI has been the subject of increasingly more investigations. UHI intensity is normally defined/quantified as the difference between urban and rural near

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Leiqiu Hu, Andrew J. Monaghan, and Nathaniel A. Brunsell

; O’Neill and Ebi 2009 ; Peng et al. 2011 ; Patz et al. 2005 ). The urban heat island (UHI; Oke 1982 ) is a common phenomenon in which cities exhibit higher temperatures than their adjacent rural surroundings. It is attributed to the progressive modification of land surface materials and structures as well as intensive human activities ( Rizwan et al. 2008 ). The UHI effect can amplify heat waves ( Livezey and Tinker 1996 ) and air pollution ( Sarrat et al. 2006 ), elevating the risk for health

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Kodi L. Nemunaitis-Berry, Petra M. Klein, Jeffrey B. Basara, and Evgeni Fedorovich

parameters, especially during the daytime. However, its implementation also increased the daytime UHI intensity, increased the disparity between observed and predicted daytime temperatures, and failed to improve the temporal difference. While the observations show a daytime cool island developing with urban temperatures 1°C cooler than surrounding rural temperatures, the WRF Model predicts a daytime heat island ranging from 1° to 2.5°C. Depending on the choice of urban parameters, the predicted daytime

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Ping Yang, Guoyu Ren, and Pengcheng Yan

surface heat budget forms the urban heat island (UHI), rendering the city consistently warmer than its surroundings ( Stewart and Oke 2012 ; Yang et al. 2013b ). The most pronounced UHIs have been observed for some large cities on calm and clear winter nights ( Jáuregui 1973 ; Rosenzweig et al. 2005 ). It is also demonstrated that the UHI intensity exhibits diurnal and seasonal variation, modulated by synoptic weather conditions. The UHI in urban areas produces rising and subsiding air, resulting in

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A. W. Hogan and M. G. Ferrick

Introduction The “urban heat island” associated with large and small cities is well known and was reviewed in Landsberg (1981) . Landsberg established the existence of the urban heat island on a many-year climatic scale and noted a detectable change corresponding to the first urbanization of a rural area. Stull (1988) reviewed the micrometeorological processes associated with the formation of heat islands. By comparing temperatures over adjacent areas, Lowry (1977) showed that other heat

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Hiroshi Niino, Atsushi Mori, Takehiko Satomura, and Sayaka Akiba

1. Introduction Heat island circulation is one of the typical horizontal convection driven by the differential surface heating in the atmosphere. Because of its importance in the environmental problems, its basic dynamics has been extensively studied since the beginning of the last century (e.g., Jeffreys 1922 ; Malkus and Stern 1953 ; Stommel and Veronis 1957 ; Rossby 1965 ; Olfe and Lee 1971 ; Garstang et al. 1975 ; Kimura 1975 ; Ueda 1983 ). One of the interesting features of the

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Bernice Ackerman

JUNE 1985 BERNICE ACKERMAN 547Temporal March of the Chicago .Heat Island BERNICE ACKERMANIllinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL 61820(Manuscript received 24 September 1984, in final form 9 January 1985)- ABSTRACT Twenty years of records from Midway Airport, located within the City of Chicago, and Argonne NationalLaboratory, a rural site 23 km southwest of the airport, have been

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