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Leiqiu Hu, Andrew J. Monaghan, and Nathaniel A. Brunsell

; O’Neill and Ebi 2009 ; Peng et al. 2011 ; Patz et al. 2005 ). The urban heat island (UHI; Oke 1982 ) is a common phenomenon in which cities exhibit higher temperatures than their adjacent rural surroundings. It is attributed to the progressive modification of land surface materials and structures as well as intensive human activities ( Rizwan et al. 2008 ). The UHI effect can amplify heat waves ( Livezey and Tinker 1996 ) and air pollution ( Sarrat et al. 2006 ), elevating the risk for health

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Kodi L. Nemunaitis-Berry, Petra M. Klein, Jeffrey B. Basara, and Evgeni Fedorovich

parameters, especially during the daytime. However, its implementation also increased the daytime UHI intensity, increased the disparity between observed and predicted daytime temperatures, and failed to improve the temporal difference. While the observations show a daytime cool island developing with urban temperatures 1°C cooler than surrounding rural temperatures, the WRF Model predicts a daytime heat island ranging from 1° to 2.5°C. Depending on the choice of urban parameters, the predicted daytime

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A. W. Hogan and M. G. Ferrick

Introduction The “urban heat island” associated with large and small cities is well known and was reviewed in Landsberg (1981) . Landsberg established the existence of the urban heat island on a many-year climatic scale and noted a detectable change corresponding to the first urbanization of a rural area. Stull (1988) reviewed the micrometeorological processes associated with the formation of heat islands. By comparing temperatures over adjacent areas, Lowry (1977) showed that other heat

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Bernice Ackerman

JUNE 1985 BERNICE ACKERMAN 547Temporal March of the Chicago .Heat Island BERNICE ACKERMANIllinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL 61820(Manuscript received 24 September 1984, in final form 9 January 1985)- ABSTRACT Twenty years of records from Midway Airport, located within the City of Chicago, and Argonne NationalLaboratory, a rural site 23 km southwest of the airport, have been

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Lorenzo Giovannini, Dino Zardi, and Massimiliano de Franceschi

1. Introduction Urban areas are known to display different climatic conditions than the surrounding countryside, primarily associated with the so-called urban heat island (UHI), that is, with higher values of surface air temperature occurring in the city center than in surrounding rural areas. The UHI effect is mainly due to the strong modifications produced in the surface energy budget by urban surfaces covered with artificial materials (buildings, paved roads, etc.). However, another

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R. A. Preston-Whyte

AUGUST1970 R. A. PRESTON-WHYTE 571A Spatial Model of an Urban Heat IslandR. A. PRESToN-WItyTEDept. of Geography, University of Natal, Durban, South Africa (Manuscript received 11 March 1970)ABSTRACT Mean temperatures obtained from 28 midday motor traverses in the Durban area during the summerof 1968-69 show the center of the heat island to be displaced away from the central business

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Shaoxiu Ma, Andy Pitman, Jiachuan Yang, Claire Carouge, Jason P. Evans, Melissa Hart, and Donna Green

; Zander et al. 2015 ). The risk of heat stress on urban residents is increasing in some regions because of urbanization, the urban heat island (UHI) effect ( Fischer et al. 2012 ; Oleson et al. 2015 ), and global warming ( Sherwood and Huber 2010 ; Zhao et al. 2015 ). While it is possible that some cities are seeing a decline in heat-related mortality ( Barnett 2007 ; Carson et al. 2006 ; Davis et al. 2003 ; Sheridan et al. 2009 ), the overall trend is toward increasing heat stress on humans

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Humberto R. Silva, Rahul Bhardwaj, Patrick E. Phelan, Jay S. Golden, and Susanne Grossman-Clarke

. In turn, these engineered changes in land surface and supporting urban systems impact the partitioning of surface energy ( Taha 1997 ). This impact is often manifested in micro- and mesoscale modifications to the thermal properties of the surface and atmosphere and can result in rapid change in the urban climate in comparison with adjacent rural regions, known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect (see, e.g., Oke 1987 ; Grimmond 2006 ). Contributions of engineered materials to urban climatology

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Jong-Jin Baik, Yeon-Hee Kim, and Hye-Yeong Chun

meteorological data in the Atlanta area. Their analysis of six precipitation events over the city for nine summer days revealed that the urban heat island induced a convergence zone that initiated three of the convective thunderstorms at different times of the day. A critical review of urban effects on precipitation amount is given by Lowry (1998) . These and other observational studies confirm that cities can initiate convection, split convective storms, change the behavior of convective precipitation, and

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Yeon-Hee Kim and Jong-Jin Baik

Introduction In most big cities, urbanization has produced significant changes in the surface and atmospheric properties that can subsequently result in inadvertent local weather and climate changes ( Changnon 1981 ; Cotton and Pielke 1995 ). The urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon, in which surface air temperature in an urban area is higher than in the surrounding suburbs and rural area, is a feature commonly observed in many cities, and its characteristics have been extensively studied

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