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M. Q. Brewster, X. Li, K. K. Roman, E. O. McNichols, and M. J. Rood

), by both cloud droplets and water vapor has come to be included in cloud modeling through its effect on raising supersaturation ( Bott 2020 ) but not necessarily in terms of size-dependent droplet radiation ( Klinger et al. 2019 ). A recent theoretical study of size-dependent radiation by water droplets of a range of diameters from μm to mm examined the volumetric or in-depth nature of radiation participation and showed that for LW or infrared radiation, surface absorption/emission could be

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Stephen Smith and Ralf Toumi

: Angular-dependent measurements of the thermal radiation of the sky. High Temp.–High Pressures , 34 , 185 – 192 . Wielicki , B. A. , R. D. Cess , M. D. King , D. A. Randall , and E. F. Harrison , 1995 : Mission to planet Earth: Role of clouds and radiation in climate. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 76 , 2125 – 2153 . Yamamoto , G. , M. Tanaka , and S. Asano , 1970 : Radiative transfer in water clouds in the infrared region. J. Atmos. Sci. , 27 , 282 – 292 . Fig . 1

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Frédéric Chevallier and Jean-François Mahfouf

physical parameterization schemes. Moreover, a minimization process is time consuming when the description of the control variables is global. Therefore, only fast physical parameterizations can be linearized for global variational analyses of the atmosphere. Examples of physical parameterizations for 4D-Var can be found in Janisková et al. (1999) and in Mahfouf (1999) . This study examines two infrared radiation schemes for application in 4D-Var. They use different parameterizations because

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S. M. Greenfield and W. W. Kellogg

JUNE 1960S. M. GREENFIELD AND iV. \V. KELLOGG283CALCULATIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC INFRARED RADIATION AS SEEN FROM A METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITE'S. M. Green5eld and W. W. Kellogg The RAND Corporation (Manuscript received 24 July 1959)ABSTRACTSince certain constituents (water vapor, ozone, carbon dioxide, etc.) of the atmosphere have pronouncedabsorption arid emission bands in the infrared region of the spectrum, the radiation which is radiated upwardfrom the atmosphere will depend on the

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Christopher J. Cox, David D. Turner, Penny M. Rowe, Matthew D. Shupe, and Von P. Walden

al. 1996 ), and downwelling longwave radiation ( Francis and Hunter 2007 ). Turner (2005) reports that the seasonal cycle in liquid droplet effective radii is likely related to seasonality in aerosols (e.g., Sirios and Barrie 1999 ), which have a climatologically significant impact on cloud emissivity (resulting in higher downwelling infrared fluxes) ( Lubin and Vogelmann 2006 ; Garrett and Zhao 2006 ). Further, several studies have suggested that Arctic cloud microphysics are spatially

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W. L. SMITH, P. K. RAO, R. KOFFLER, and W. R. CURTIS

604MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEWVol. 98, No. 8UDC 551.526.6:551.46.@35:551.507.362.2:551.521.18THE DETERMINATION OF SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATUREFROM SATELLITE HIGH RESOLUTION INFRARED WINDOW RADIATION MEASUREMENTSW. L. SMITH, P. K. RAO, R. KOFFLER, and W. R. CURTISNational Environmental Satellite Center, ESSA, Washington, D.C.ABSTRACTA statistical histogram method is developed to objectively determine sea-surface temperature from satellite highresolution window radiation measurements. The method involves

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Jun Li, Jinlong Li, Jason Otkin, Timothy J. Schmit, and Chian-Yi Liu

1. Introduction Placing a high-spectral-resolution infrared (IR) sounder in geostationary orbit will provide high temporal resolution of the three-dimensional fields of moisture, temperature, and wind with much greater vertical resolving power than the broadband legacy sounders on the current Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) series ( Schmit et al. 2009 ). Greater information about the time evolution of clear-sky horizontal and vertical water vapor, temperature, and wind

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Meike Kühnlein, Boris Thies, Thomas Nauß, and Jörg Bendix

, 2003 : A semianalytical cloud retrieval algorithm using backscattered radiation in 0.4–2.4 μ m spectral region. J. Geophys. Res. , 108 , 4008 . doi:10.1029/2001JD001543 . Kummerow , C. , and Coauthors , 2001 : The evolution of the Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) for rainfall estimation from passive microwave sensors. J. Appl. Meteor. , 40 , 1801 – 1820 . Kurino , T. , 1997 : A satellite infrared technique for estimating ‘deep/shallow’ precipitation. Adv. Space Res. , 19

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Ryan J. Harris, John R. Mecikalski, Wayne M. MacKenzie Jr., Philip A. Durkee, and Kurt E. Nielsen

1. Introduction Lightning is one of Earth’s most awe-inspiring atmospheric phenomena, yet our knowledge of exactly how and when it will occur remains an elusive research problem today. The main goals of this study are to understand the behavior of infrared (IR) and visible (VIS) imagery of geostationary satellite-sensed cloud-top properties as cumulonimbus (Cb) clouds begin to form an initial lightning flash, so-called lightning initiation (LI), using statistical analysis to identify valuable

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Larry L. Stowe Jr.

.APRIL 1974 L A R R Y L. S T O W E , J R . 755Effects of Particulate Matter on the Radiance of Terrestrial Infrared Radiation: RESULTS LARRY L. STOWE, JR.1Dept. of Meteorology and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles 90024(Manuscript received 8 March 1973, in revised form 5 November 1973)ABSTRACT The effects of

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