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Colm Sweeney, Anand Gnanadesikan, Stephen M. Griffies, Matthew J. Harrison, Anthony J. Rosati, and Bonita L. Samuels

1. Introduction Global ocean general circulation models (OGCMs) can treat solar heating of the ocean in terms of two processes. The first process is the heating due to infrared (IR) radiation, which is generally described as radiation above 700 nm. While IR radiation can represent 40%–60% ( Mobley 1994 ) of the total downwelling surface ocean irradiance, it is almost completely (>99.9%) absorbed in the upper 2 m of the water column. The second process is the heating due to ultraviolet and

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A. Birol Kara, Alan J. Wallcraft, and Harley E. Hurlburt

turbidity on the annual mean of the model simulations are discussed using atmospheric forcing from two different sources. The summary and conclusions are presented in section 6 . 2. Solar radiation penetration Penetration of solar radiation into the ocean has a strong spectral dependence with red and near-infrared (IR) radiation absorbed within ≈1 m of the surface and shorter wavelengths absorbed at greater depths (e.g., Lalli and Parsons 1997 ). The incident solar irradiance that penetrates to depths

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K. L. Denman and M. Miyake

necessaryboundary condition is aT(z)/Ot=3' Re~--wOr(z)/az, z~<--h. (4) The two adjustable parameters are % the extinctioncoefficient of the solar radiation, and m, the fraction ofthe wind stress energy at 10 m height which is eventually used to increase the potential energy of the watercolumn (to be defined later).a. The extinction coefficient Solar radiation incident on the sea surface is confinedto the visible 'and infrared regions: the spectrum iscomposed of wavelengths ranging from 0.3-1.0urn

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A. Birol Kara, Alan J. Wallcraft, and Harley E. Hurlburt

surface is composed of wavelengths longer than 780 nm ( Morel and Maritorena 2001 ). The near-infrared radiation is absorbed and converted to heat near the ocean surface. Ultraviolet radiation has a wavelength of <400 nm and forms only a small fraction of the total radiation ( Lalli and Parsons 1997 ). The remaining 50% of the radiation comprises the visible spectrum with wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm that penetrate deeper into the ocean (e.g., Liu et al. 1994 ). These are approximately the same

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David M. Farmer and Johannes R. Gemmrich

radiation was calculated from solar elevation andcloud coverage (Dobson and Smith 1988) neglectingthe fraction absorbed below the thermal boundarylayer. Net infrared radiation was estimated from airsea temperatures, cloud coverage, and humidity (Eftmova 1961 ). The contribution to the heat flux by rain[ assumed to have the wet-bulb temperature of the air(Katsaros 1976)] is estimated at less than 5 W m-2 andwas therefore neglected. The radiative fluxes are theleast well known, contributing to an

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J. Carter Ohlmann and David A. Siegel

indicate that between 60% and 90% of the solar energy reaching the sea surface is attenuated within the top 10 m of the ocean ( Ohlmann et al. 1998 ). Such a discrepancy in solar transmission can result in a radiant heating rate difference of more than 0.12°C day −1 for the 10-m layer (based on a climatological surface irradiance of 200 W m −2 ). Variations in the transmission of solar radiation can also influence the upper ocean heat budget indirectly, through water column stability ( Ohlmann et al

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Robert H. Hill

, and the temperature difference acrossthe water thermal boundary layer as observed with an infrared radiometer. Two distinct regimes of boundarylayer characteristics were identified which are separated by a transition that coincides with the onset ofsurface waves. At low wind speeds the boundary layer can be characterized as laminar and a relativelylarge temperature difference is observed; a surface-active film enhances the temperature difference. Athigher wind speeds, when the surface is roughened

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L. D. Danny Harvey

slowest transient response of all the coupling methods under consideration here. As explained in SH, withfixed To the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heatincrease rapidly as the ocean surface warms, and thereis no increase in the downward infrared radiation. Thiscauses a slowing down of the. oceanic warming, withthe response in the seasonal model with 1-day atmospheric integrations being much slower than that obtained with the mean annual model of SH using either2'/2- or 5-year ocean

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B. C. Carissimo, A. H. Oort, and T. H. Vonder Haar

Vonder Haar (1980) made anextensive error analysis. They concluded that for thesatellite measurements the present sampling was adequate to determine the relative magnitude of anaverage beyond a month but that large systematicerrors were still possible because of the lack ofabsolute calibration of the instruments. Their errorestimates for net radiation combined the errors esti.mates for infrared radiation and planetary albedomeasurements in ten-degree latitude zones for eachc 1985 American

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Paul E. La Violette

550 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 14The Advection of Submesoscale Thermal Features in the Alboran Sea Gyre PAUL E. LA VIOLETTENaval Ocean Research and Development Activity, NSTL, MS 39529(Manuscript received 24 August 1983, in final form 17 November 1983) ABSTRACT NOAA-7 infrared and Nimbus-7 multi-spectral visible imagery Of the Alboran Sea, collected

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