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Uri Itay and Dan Liberzon

(besides whitecaps counting) and relying on human decision regarding the exact moment of the inception of breaking complicates the experimental research. Through the last decades, progress has been made in numerous numerical and experimental studies of the topic, and various geometric, dynamic, and kinematic criteria for waves breaking have been suggested and examined. In recent studies, several reviews of suggested criteria were presented (e.g., Babanin 2011 ; Williams 1981 ; Stansell and

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M. A. Pedder

AUGUST 1989 M.A. PEDDER 1695Limited Area Kinematic Analysis by a Multivariate Statistical Interpolation Method M. A. PEDDERDepartment of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, E~gland(Manuscript received 6 October 1988, in final form I February 1989)ABSTRACT An observational map analysis scheme is described, whereby the vector field derived from discrete observationsof wind

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Barry A. Klinger

JANUARY 1996 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 131NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCEA Kinematic Model of Wind-Driven Meridional Heat Transport BARRY A. In[LINGEROceanographic Center, Nova Southeastern University, Dania, Florida9 May 1994 and 22 May 1995 ABSTRACT A kinematic model of flow in the subtropical gyre is used to estimate the upper-ocean temperature distributionand heat transport

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Samuel R. Webb, Nigel T. Penna, Peter J. Clarke, Stuart Webster, Ian Martin, and Gemma V. Bennitt

operationally provide PWV observations for assimilation into NWP models in near–real time ( Gutman et al. 2004 ). These observations complement more traditional sources of atmospheric water vapor measurements such as radiosondes, which suffer from poor spatial and temporal resolution. GPS PWV measurements may be obtained as often as once every 5–15 min, while the spatial resolution is governed solely by the number of receivers deployed. The use of GPS in network real-time kinematic applications (e

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Dayton G. Vincent, Jon M. Schrage, and L. David Sliwinski

1296 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE VOLUME8Recent Climatology of Kinematic Variables in the TOGA-COARE RegionDAYTON G. VINCENT, JON M. SCHRAGE, AND L. DAVID SLIWINSKI*Department of Earth and .4tmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana(Manuscript received 3 December 1993, in final form 26 August 1994)ABSTRACT The importance of the "warm pool" region of the western Pacific on in situ and global

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Kevin R. Knupp

15 MARCH 1987 KEVIN R. KNUPP 987Downdrafts within High Plains Cumulonimbi. Part I: General Kinematic StructureKEVIN R. KNUPP*Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523(Manuscript received 30 September 1985, in final form 9 October 1986) This' paper presents results from a comprehensive investigation in which observations from several

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John D. Marwitz

IZIg JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOLUME40The Kinematics of Orographic Airflow During Sierra Storms JOHN D. ~[ARWITZDepartment of .4tmospheric Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie 82701(Manuscript received 26 April 1982, in final form 15 December 1982) ABSTRACT Two ease studies of the kinematics of the airflow over the Sierra barrier are presented. The

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Gary D. Egbert and Richard D. Ray

the basin-scale variations of amplitude and phase emphasized by Miller et al. (1993) . With the availability now of over 8 yr of T/P altimeter data, more definitive empirical maps of the LPT are possible. In this paper we present a new empirical map of Mf, confirming that there are significant basin-scale deviations from equilibrium. We then show that this large-scale pattern can be explained with a very simple model of interconnected basins. The model is largely kinematic: self-consistent (i

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Raul A. Valenzuela and David E. Kingsmill

three-dimensional context. However, their observations had incomplete documentation of airflows below the peaks of the coastal terrain, which is essential for examination of TTAs. VK15 addressed these limitations by documenting the kinematic and precipitation structures of a coastal-mountain TTA. Although their study provided unprecedented details, it was based on only a single storm. Accordingly, there is uncertainty regarding the generality of their results. Part I of the present study developed

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Michael Garstang, Harold L. Massie Jr., Jeffrey Halverson, Steven Greco, and John Scala

wake and remove a tropospheric minimum of 0e. h is hypothesized that theremoval of this m'mimum is accomplished both by direct mixing via vertical motions in the LEC ( "hot towers")and also through detrainment in the multiple-layered TSR. Part I describes the structure and kinematics of theACSL, while Part II deals with the heat and moisture transports of these systems.1. Introduction Among the most important rain producers in the rainforests of the central Amazon Basin (CAB) of Brazilare

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