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E. F. Stocker, F. Alquaied, S. Bilanow, Y. Ji, and L. Jones

1. Introduction The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as a research-driven engineering and science innovator, has always included the reprocessing of mission data products as part of all mission phases. Within NASA missions, reprocessing allows for all the data collected during a mission to be reprocessed using the latest algorithms, ensuring that consistent data products are generated for the entire mission. During the course of its more than 17 yr of operations, the

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Jackson Tan, George J. Huffman, David T. Bolvin, Eric J. Nelkin, and Manikandan Rajagopal

smaller than the precipitation rates themselves. These blocks are most prominent in the vicinity of coasts, with higher values on the ocean side of the blocks, likely reflecting the difference in distributions of precipitation over land and over ocean (with stride causing SHARPEN to use the wrong distribution as reference). The magnitudes of the anomalies increase with stride, confirming our earlier intuition that k ≪ n to avoid boundary artifacts. Incidentally, this also supports our choice of

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Linda Bogerd, Aart Overeem, Hidde Leijnse, and Remko Uijlenhoet

. Hence, five additional categories representing the specific instruments were added to the source categories. 2) Ground-based rainfall estimates: Gauge-adjusted radar A gauge-adjusted radar dataset obtained from the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) was used as reference to validate the IMERG precipitation estimates. This gridded dataset completely covers the land surface of the Netherlands at a spatial resolution of ~1 km 2 and a 5-min temporal resolution. Radar data were

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Manikandan Rajagopal, Edward Zipser, George Huffman, James Russell, and Jackson Tan

precipitation and cloud radars have extremely sparse revisit times, so long-term global satellite precipitation products use passive microwave (PMW) sensor observations. These long-term precipitation records help us understand the hydrological cycle and climate change impacts at global and regional scales. These records include satellite precipitation data such as the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP; Huffman et al. 1997 ; Adler et al. 2018 ) and the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation

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Kenneth D. Leppert II and Daniel J. Cecil

of simulations where all hydrometeor types were included suggest little sensitivity of BTs at any frequency to changing any PSD parameter of rain, big drops, or snow. The emission signal of liquid hydrometeor types can be important over ocean (radiometrically cold background) at lower frequencies (e.g., Wilheit et al. 1991 ). However, the radiometrically warm background of land (used here) provides relatively little distinction from the emission from liquid in a cloud. In addition, ice above

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Jiaying Zhang, Liao-Fan Lin, and Rafael L. Bras

; Villarini and Krajewski 2007 ; Sapiano and Arkin 2009 ; Baxter et al. 2014 ; Yong et al. 2016 ). Nevertheless, such seasonal and latitudinal variations could be captured by air temperature ( Peel et al. 2007 ; Behrangi et al. 2015 ; Smalley et al. 2014 ). Seasonal and latitudinal variations of the quality of satellite-based precipitation products have been widely investigated. Maggioni et al. (2016) reviewed previous work that evaluates commonly used satellite-based precipitation products across

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Sarah D. Bang and Daniel J. Cecil

.S. National Weather Service to warn for a severe thunderstorm, and severe hail is often a harbinger of other violent weather to come ( Bluestein and Parker 1993 ; Johns and Hart 1998 ). Hailstorms’ destructive potential and their place at the upper reach of the intensity spectrum of convective precipitation drives the need within the meteorological community to establish global hail climatologies, which can be constructed using either ground-report-based or remotely sensed approaches. While there are

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Liang Liao and Robert Meneghini

( Feingold and Levin 1986 ), and several dual-wavelength radar retrieval techniques have been developed ( Meneghini et al. 1992 ; Mardiana et al. 2004 ; Liao and Meneghini 2005 ; Rose and Chandrasekar 2005 ; Seto et al. 2013 ; Seto and Iguchi 2015 ; Liao et al. 2016 ; Liao and Meneghini 2019 ). Some of them are based on an analytic technique that uses the dual-frequency ratio (DFR), that is, the difference of radar reflectivities between two wavelengths, to estimate a characteristic size parameter

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Xinxuan Zhang and Emmanouil N. Anagnostou

-based PMW sensors ( Joyce et al. 2004 ). This study used the CMORPH V1.0 near-real-time and gauge-adjusted products with 0.073°/30-min resolution. The gauge-adjusted product is corrected by two widely used long-term datasets, the CPC unified gauge analysis over land and the pentad Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) over the ocean. CMORPH has a newer version named V0.x, which employed more advanced algorithms. However, CMORPH V0.x does not provide a gauge-adjusted product, and it is not

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Ali Tokay, Leo Pio D’Adderio, Federico Porcù, David B. Wolff, and Walter A. Petersen

out that the systematic differences in NS and MS precipitation estimates are larger for convective rain over land and strongly depend on the NUBF parameterization. They also mentioned that simulated Z_Ka was significantly and systematically lower than observed Z_Ka, resulting in erroneous DSD adjustments. A methodology to account for NUBF is therefore necessary to mitigate large errors in the N W and precipitation rate estimates derived from DPR observations. A statistical model used by Grecu

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