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Andrew J. Szeri

FEBRUARY 1996 PICTURE OF THE MONTH 341PICTURE OF TI-iE MONTHLangmuir Circulations in Rodeo ANDREW J. SZERIDepartment of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California at lrvine, Irvine, California 17 April 1995 and 31 July 1995 ~.~. - ~ ;, .,~-. ~--~ ,~ <~ a

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Yutaka Yoshikawa, Yasuyuki Baba, Hideaki Mizutani, Teruhiro Kubo, and Chikara Shimoda

despite its potentially large impacts on ocean surface mixing, sea surface temperature, and consequently Earth’s climate. An example of this impact is found in the Southern Ocean where mixed layer depth simulated in ocean and coupled general circulation models is significantly improved by proper parameterization of the effects of Langmuir turbulence (e.g., Belcher et al. 2012 ; Li et al. 2016 ). Typical features of Langmuir circulations (LCs), revealed by early field observations (e.g., Weller et

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Yign Noh, Hyejin Ok, Eunjeong Lee, Takahiro Toyoda, and Naoki Hirose

). Langmuir circulation (LC), which appears in the form of an array of alternating horizontal roll vortices with axes aligned roughly with the wind, represents one of the most important characteristics of the ocean mixed layer (see, e.g., Leibovich 1983 ; Smith 2001 ; Thorpe 2004 ). The prevailing theory of LC is made by Craik and Leibovich (1976) , who described the formation of LC in terms of instability brought on by the interaction of the Stokes drift with the wind-driven surface shear current

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Zhihua Zheng, Ramsey R. Harcourt, and Eric A. D’Asaro

Leibovich 1976 ) and additional material transport to generate Langmuir circulations, cells, or turbulence that fill the entire OSBL. Conceptually, they can be viewed as arrays of counterrotating vortices with elongated major axes oriented roughly downwind ( Sullivan and McWilliams 2010 ). Oftentimes, one can identify them by streaks of buoyant debris on the surface ( Langmuir 1938 ), and by bubble clouds trapped beneath these streaks using side-scan sonar (e.g., Thorpe 1984 ; Zedel and Farmer 1991

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Kalyan Shrestha, William Anderson, and Joseph Kuehl

1. Introduction The upper region of the ocean is subjected to dramatic ambient forcing, which enhances and controls the turbulent exchanges of momentum, heat, and other quantities across the air–sea interface ( Leibovich 1983 ; Thorpe 2004 ; Sullivan and Williams 2010 ). Among these forces are breaking and nonbreaking waves, where the latter interacts with wind stress to produce local recirculating motions called Langmuir circulations (LC), which was first studied by Langmuir (1938) . LC can

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Brandon G. Reichl and Qing Li

the mechanism was proposed as a result of efforts to understand Langmuir circulations in the ocean (following Craik and Leibovich 1976 ). Ocean climate simulations with and without parameterization of the effect of Langmuir turbulence suggest it plays a significant role in global OSBL processes (see Belcher et al. 2012 ; D’Asaro 2014 ; Fan and Griffies 2014 ; Li et al. 2016 ; Noh et al. 2016 ). Surface waves also play a critical role in OSBL near-surface mixing and air–sea fluxes through

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Brodie Pearson

://doi.org/10.1175/2007JPO3702.1 . 10.1175/2007JPO3702.1 Broström , G. , K. H. Christensen , M. Drivdal , and J. E. H. Weber , 2014 : Note on Coriolis-Stokes force and energy . Ocean Dyn. , 64 , 1039 – 1045 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-014-0723-8 . 10.1007/s10236-014-0723-8 Craik , A. D. D. , and S. Leibovich , 1976 : Rational model for Langmuir circulations . J. Fluid Mech. , 73 , 401 – 426 , https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112076001420 . 10.1017/S0022112076001420 Grant , A. L

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Dong Wang and Tobias Kukulka

Allocation Grant, sponsored by National Science Foundation, and University of Delaware’s high-performance computers Mills and Farber. We thank two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments, which have substantially improved the manuscript. REFERENCES Craik , A. D. D. , and S. Leibovich , 1976 : A rational model for Langmuir circulations . J. Fluid Mech. , 73 , 401 – 426 , https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112076001420 . 10.1017/S0022112076001420 D’Asaro , E. A. , 2014 : Turbulence in

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Dong Wang, Tobias Kukulka, Brandon G. Reichl, Tetsu Hara, Isaac Ginis, and Peter P. Sullivan

: Impact of Langmuir turbulence on upper ocean response to Hurricane Edouard: Model and observations . J. Geophys. Res. Oceans , 122 , 9712 – 9724 , https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JC012956 . 10.1002/2017JC012956 Craik , A. D. D. , and S. Leibovich , 1976 : A rational model for Langmuir circulations . J. Fluid Mech. , 73 , 401 – 426 , https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112076001420 . 10.1017/S0022112076001420 D’Asaro , E. A. , 2014 : Turbulence in the upper-ocean mixed layer . Annu. Rev. Mar

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William G. Large, Edward G. Patton, Alice K. DuVivier, Peter P. Sullivan, and Leonel Romero

for incorporating the effects of Langmuir circulations driven by surface wave induced Stokes drift in OGCMs. Furthermore, Belcher et al. (2012) used some of these LES results, available forcing data and simple energy scaling to argue that “wave-forcing and hence Langmuir turbulence could be important over wide areas of the ocean and in all seasons in the Southern Ocean.” A solid foundation for understanding near surface turbulence is Monin–Obukhov similarity theory ( Monin and Obukhov 1954

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