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Hidenori Aiki, Koutarou Takaya, and Richard J. Greatbatch

. Mei , 1970 : On slowly-varying Stokes waves . J. Fluid Mech. , 41 , 873 – 887 , doi: 10.1017/S0022112070000988 . Constantin , A. , 2013 : Some three-dimensional nonlinear equatorial flows . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 43 , 165 – 175 , doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-12-062.1 . Craik , A. D. D. , and S. Leibovich , 1976 : A rational model for Langmuir circulations . J. Fluid Mech. , 73 , 401 – 426 , doi: 10.1017/S0022112076001420 . Dritschel , D. G. , and M. E. McIntyre , 2008 : Multiple jets

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Joanne S. Malkus

phenomenon,and any theory of eye air origin must be consistentwith it. An apparent obstacle to the acceptance of theentrainment idea has been the high cyclonic angularmomenta which must be introduced into the eye ifcloud-band air enters it in significant quantity. Thepresent model suggests that high-level origin of muchof the air (where the cyclonic circulation is weaker)coupled with destruction by friction and spreadinglaterally at low levels can produce a near-calm surface eye.This contention is now

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Suzanne M. Zurn-Birkhimer, Ernest M. Agee, and Zbigniew Sorbjan

smallest scale CS1 is a manifestation of steam fog at the air–lake interface, which may be initiated by Langmuir circulations in the surface layer of the lake. However, this is not required, and it is readily noted that steam fog patterns move rapidly downstream with the wind field. Agee et al. (2000) have estimated that these circulations have individual length scales of 30 m and depths of about 6 m. It is further proposed (although no supportive detailed sea surface temperature data exist) that

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Terry J. Schuur, W. David Rust, Bradley F. Smull, and Thomas C. Marshall

~0/ ~. 4/40...x1~..,~' ~- 400 -10 0 10 20 30 40 Temperature (oC) RO. 3. O~ahoma Cit~ prc-sto~ cnvkonmen~] ~un~ relc~at 0000 UTC 18 June 1987. Full wind barb is 5 m s-~; half-barb 2.5ms~.updraft/downdraft circulation as described by Zipser(1977).4. System structurea. Radar analysis Although convective storms constituting the 18 June1987 squall system originated in two separate areas,our analysis focuses on the portion of the line

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Graham Feingold and Patrick Y. Chuang

turbulence, radiation and microphysics in Arctic stratus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci. , 43 , 90 – 106 . Derjaguin , B. V. , Y. S. Kurghin , S. P. Bakanov , and K. M. Merzhanov , 1985 : Influence of surfactant vapor on the spectrum of cloud drops forming in the process of condensation growth. Langmuir , 1 , 278 – 281 . Facchini , M. C. , M. Mircea , S. Fuzzi , and R. J. Charlson , 1999 : Cloud albedo enhancement by surface active organic solutes in growing droplets. Nature

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Richard L. Carpenter Jr., Kelvin K. Droegemeier, and Alan M. Blyth

were made with the National Center for Atmospheric Research King Air in New Mexican summertime cumulus clouds that formed over Langmuir Laboratory in the Magdalena Mountains of west-central New Mexico. The mountain range runs north–south for roughly 20 km and is 10 km wide, with a highest peak of about 3.2 km above mean sea level (685 mb). The elevation of the surrounding plain is about 1.9 km above sea level (810 mb). [This value is used for the model’s surface. Altitudes will be reported as

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E. F. Danielsen, R. Bleck, and D. A. Morris

this effect sometimes occursin smaller cumulonimbus clouds, downdrafts in largerclouds usually develop in a portion of or adjacent to theupdraft, with the updraft and downdraft then tendingto form a closed circulation.4. Initial droplet distributions Four different droplet distributions were used to testtheir control of the subsequent hydrometeor distributions and hail production. As shown in Fig. 1, eachcontains the same number of droplets, 500 cm-a, andeach has a sharp maximum between 4 and 5

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Peter P. Sullivan, James C. McWilliams, and Edward G. Patton

surface where the descending flow then turns spanwise and converges with a neighboring roll in a layer just above the wavy surface. Finally, eruptions above the wave field lift low-speed fluid vertically completing a circuit. At ζ a , the ratio of the maximum and minimum values of the horizontal wind U a ( x , y ) differs by more than a factor of 2 because of the large-scale circulations. Thus, the lateral heterogeneity induced by the MABL rolls leads to spatial variability in wave age that is

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Terry J. Schuur and Steven A. Rutledge

positive charge over which horizontal electric fields were significant and, as a result, charge densities could not be computed. When examining the asymmetric MCS EFM profiles with respect to the kinematic structure presented earlier ( Fig. 12 ), it is apparent that the two EFMs likely ascended through a deep region of mesoscale descent. A less vigorous mesoscale circulation is also supported by the low cloud-top heights at the time of the two EFM launches. 4. Comparison of symmetric and asymmetric

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Peter P. Sullivan, James C. McWilliams, Jeffrey C. Weil, Edward G. Patton, and Harindra J. S. Fernando

–SST orientation; that is, different boundary layer motions including secondary circulations are found when winds blow perpendicular or parallel to the SST isotherms. Also, the investigators find a reduction in wave height in a warm–cold transition due to diminished surface fluxes and wind speed. However, the limited sampling available from aircraft observations hinders the ability to create stationary statistics from these highly turbulent fields. There is a large body of prior work examining the impact of

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