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Johannes Gemmrich

factor b exists and it has to be determined experimentally. So far, the field studies ( Ding and Farmer 1994 ; Phillips et al. 2001 ; Melville and Matusov 2002 ; Gemmrich et al. 2008 ; Thomson et al. 2009 ) as well as laboratory studies ( Banner and Peirson 2007 ) are inconclusive. To address open issues in the Duncan–Phillips concept we conducted a field experiment that combined visual and infrared observations of the breaking crests with collocated in situ measurements of TKE dissipation

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Ted Conroy, David A. Sutherland, and David K. Ralston

flux varies across estuarine parameter space ( Hansen and Rattray 1965 ) depending on the river discharge and tidal amplitude ( Chen et al. 2012 ). Here, we describe seasonal and tidal variations in hydrography, salt flux, and estuarine exchange flow in the Coos Estuary, Oregon, using observations and a numerical ocean model. The estuary has a seasonal salinity field, strong tidal forcing, is relatively short, and has multiple branching tributaries. The total exchange flow (TEF) method ( MacCready

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Miles A. Sundermeyer, Daniel A. Birch, James R. Ledwell, Murray D. Levine, Stephen D. Pierce, and Brandy T. Kuebel Cervantes

limited in both time and space. To address these challenges, a major field campaign was organized by the Office of Naval Research under a Department Research Initiative (DRI) entitled “Scalable Lateral Mixing and Coherent Turbulence,” nicknamed LatMix. The primary objective of LatMix was to provide a better understanding, through observations, modeling, and theoretical studies, of the physical processes driving lateral dispersion, and to translate this understanding into parameterizations and formulae

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Philippe Gaspar

effects are explicitly taken into account. Garwood'sclosure technique is used. The CMO is calibrated independently of the observations to be simulated. A fouryear simulation at Station P shows that the error in the CMO-predicted SST reaches a maximum of only 0.5K. However, the remaining error keeps an annual cycle similar to that observed with the other models. Theobtained enhancement and the persistent error are analyzed.1. Introduction It has long been recognized that the ocean is a

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Rodolfo Bolaños, Jennifer M. Brown, Laurent O. Amoudry, and Alejandro J. Souza

residual circulation (e.g., Fortunato et al. 1999 ), which requires three-dimensional modeling. Therefore, a better strategy is to compare different physical influences, captured through modeling, with observations as suggested by Burchard and Hetland (2010) . The main objective of this research is to assess the impact of tides, winds, river-induced stratification, and Earth’s rotation on the circulation in a macrotidal estuary. For this purpose, a three-dimensional model has been implemented in the

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C. W. Wright, E. J. Walsh, D. Vandemark, W. B. Krabill, A. W. Garcia, S. H. Houston, M. D. Powell, P. G. Black, and F. D. Marks

. The circles on the map show the locations of the 15 spectra with the circle corresponding to the first spectrum in the sequence filled. The SRA spectral observations presented in this paper spanned from 2030 UTC 24 August to 0144 UTC 25 August. The 60 spectra in Figs. 6–9 have been selected to show the significant features of the wave-field spatial variation and provide detailed information on the spectral shapes. The spectra are in a north, east ( k n , k e ) linear wavenumber coordinate

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Paul A. Hwang, Héctor García-Nava, and Francisco J. Ocampo-Torres

-generated waves in the absence of swell, in contrast to the term “mixed sea.” The wind-generated waves represent the wind-sea portion of the wave spectrum in both wind-sea and mixed-sea conditions.) In this paper, we present an analysis of open ocean wind and wave observations in the presence of background swell and under unsteady and quasi-steady wind forcing. Data from two recent field experiments conducted in the Gulf of Tehuantepec are used for the analysis, the Gulf of Tehuantepec Air–Sea Interaction

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William G. Large, Edward G. Patton, and Peter P. Sullivan

similarly inferred from the lidar observations in the atmospheric boundary layer reported by Berg et al. (2013) . Specifically, they also find a systematic nonzero angle between the shear and momentum flux vectors. Although they attribute this behavior to mesoscale effects, it is very similar to that of Ω, especially in Fig. 5a within 100 m of the surface and before hour 20. By design ( L19 ) there is no mesoscale activity in the ocean LES. b. Similarity theory Further progress is enabled by invoking

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W. Erick Rogers, Paul A. Hwang, and David W. Wang

000 km 2 ). The first of these is the one that prompted our analysis of the model: SandyDuck '97 ( section 4 ). The simulation is for the time period of 23 and 24 September 1997. The wind speeds are weak to moderate, with a small swell component from the open ocean. In the comparisons with the remotely sensed data (airborne lidar), a significant overprediction of peak wavenumber is evident [this dataset is described by Hwang et al. (2000) ; comparisons with the SWAN model are made by Rogers et

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Takuji Waseda, Takeshi Kinoshita, and Hitoshi Tamura

observations in search of a better understanding of giant waves. Freak waves are defined in this paper as wave exceeding twice the significant wave height of a given wave record. The basis of this definition is that the occurrence of those waves is very rare—about once every 3000 waves according to linear theory. Other definition exists such as 2.2 times the significant wave height and its occurrence is once every 16 000 waves. In retrospect, there were hints about the possible existence of freak waves in

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