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E. K. Skarsoulis and U. Send

). Some tomography experiments of such long-term nature have been conducted or are currently under way in many parts of the world ocean, such as the Greenland Sea experiment in 1987–88 ( GSP Group 1990 ; Pawlowicz et al. 1995 ), the Pacific basin experiment in 1983–89 ( Spiesberger et al. 1992 ), the Thetis-2 experiment in the Western Mediterranean Sea in 1994 ( Send et al. 1997 ; Menemenlis et al. 1997a ), the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate program in the northeastern Pacific Ocean ( Munk

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D. Di Iorio, D. Lemon, and R. Chave

Bosporus canyon, which consists of Mediterranean seawater flowing into the Black Sea ( Di Iorio and Yüce 1999 ; Özsoy et al. 2001 ). This location is where the Strait of Istanbul (Bosporus) meets the Black Sea continental shelf (see Fig. 8 ). The transmitter array was deployed on the eastern side, and the receiver array on the western side was separated by 369 m at a depth of 62.5 and 65.5 m, respectively. Other moored instrumentation is shown, but only the south mooring will be discussed because it

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A. Alvarez and B. Mourre

theory. In section 3 , the numerical formalism developed to find optimal sampling designs with a glider and a mooring is proposed. In section 4 these procedures are used to compute and compare sampling designs with different optimal criteria in a restricted marine area in the Ligurian Sea (western Mediterranean Sea) where a permanent Eulerian observatory exits. The evaluation of the performance of the different optimal designs is done through OSSEs involving a glider and an Eulerian observatory

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Hans van Haren, Roel Bakker, Yvo Witte, Martin Laan, and Johan van Heerwaarden


The redistribution of matter in the deep-sea depends on water-flow currents and turbulent exchange, for which breaking internal waves are an important source. As internal waves and turbulence are essentially three-dimensional ‘3D’, their dynamical development should ideally be studied in a volume of seawater. However, this is seldom done in the ocean where 1D-observations along a single vertical line are already difficult. We present the design, construction and successful deployment of a half-cubic-hectometer (480,000 m3) 3D-T mooring array holding 2925 high-resolution temperature sensors to study weakly density-stratified waters of the 2500-m deep Western Mediterranean. The stand-alone array samples temperature at a rate of 0.5 Hz, with precision <0.5 mK, noise level <0.1 mK and expected endurance of 3 years. The independent sensors are synchronized inductively every 4 h to a single standard clock. The array consists of 45 vertical lines 125 m long, at 9.5 m horizontally from their nearest neighbor. Each line is held under tension of 1.3 kN by a buoyancy element that is released chemically one week after deployment. All fold-up lines are attached to a grid of cables that is tensioned in a 70 m diameter ring of steel tubes. The array is build-up in harbor-waters, with air filling the steel tubes for floatation. The flat-form array is towed to the mooring site under favorable sea-state conditions. By opening valves in the steel tubes, the array is sunk and its free-fall is controlled by a custom-made drag-parachute reducing the average sinking speed to 1.3 m s-1 and providing smooth horizontal landing on the flat seafloor.

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Céline Heuzé, Gisela K. Carvajal, and Leif E. B. Eriksson

km 2 ; the Bay of Biscay, 43°–48°N, 6°– 1°W, covering a sea area of 160 000 km 2 ; and the western Mediterranean Sea, 36°–45°N, 1°W–5°E, covering a sea area of 270 000 km 2 . To retrieve the sea surface velocities from the sea surface temperature we use the MCC method ( Emery et al. 1986 ). It consists of tracking features in SST between two images (here two time steps). The user defines the size of the pattern from the first image to track, as well as the largest area to look around in the

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Elizabeth M. Douglass and Andrea C. Mask

added to the data to make them comparable) is also shown. Black boxes show the regions where the metric was calculated. Gray regions including the Black Sea and part of the Atlantic Ocean are excluded from the NCOM Mediterranean Sea region and are masked for this calculation. Snapshots show that even though NCOM and HYCOM assimilate the same data using the same assimilation method, and have generally similar model descriptions, the results have distinct differences. Fig . 1. Snapshot of model SSH

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Xiangbai Wu, Xiao-Hai Yan, Young-Heon Jo, and W. Timothy Liu

) using satellite altimetry, wind scatterometers, infrared satellite imagery, and XBT datasets that successfully detected the Mediterranean outflow and “Meddies” at a depth of about 1000 m in the Atlantic Ocean. Chu et al. (2000) developed a parametric model for determining the subsurface thermal structure of the ocean from satellite sea surface temperature (SST) observations in the South China Sea. Willis et al. (2003) combined altimetric height and SST with in situ data with a linear regression

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Yongsheng Xu, D. Randolph Watts, and Jae-Hun Park

open ocean, and oceanic pressure differences along the straits caused by sea level changes outside the straits. In the Mediterranean Sea, Fukumori et al. (2007) found that more than 50% of the large-scale nontidal variance of sea level is attributable to a barotropic oscillation affecting the entire basin. The large-scale nearly uniform barotropic changes in sea level in the JES, hereafter called the common mode, contain energetic high-frequency signals at periods <70 days, which account for

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Gianluca Borzelli and Roberto Ligi

. Perilli, and R. Santoleri, 1994: SHARK researh study on objective analysis final report. European Space Agency Tech. Rep. 10180/93/YT-I-(SC), ESA/ESRIN, Frascati, Italy, 124 pp. Manzella, G. M. R., G. P. Gasparini, and M. Astraldi, 1988: Water exchange between the eastern and the western Mediterranean through the Strait of Sicily. Deep-Sea Res., 35, 1021–1035. 10.1016/0198-0149(88)90074-X ——, T. S. Hopkins, P. J. Minnet, and E. Nacini, 1990: Atlantic water in the Strait of Sicily. J. Geophys

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I. Shulman

study, the simulations were conducted using only the barotropic mode of the model. For additional information on the model, the reader is referred to Blumberg and Mellor (1987) . Two orthogonal curvilinear grids were used that cover the entire Mediterranean Sea. The first grid had a relatively fine mesh with 441 × 141 grid points in the horizontal and a grid size ranging from 8 to 12 km in the Adriatic Sea. The second grid had a relatively coarse mesh (221 × 71 grid points) with a grid size ranging

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