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Steven K. Krueger, Hugh Morrison, and Ann M. Fridlind

column-integrated mass, moisture, dry static energy, and momentum. The analysis products include both the large-scale forcing terms and the evaluation fields, which can be used for driving SCMs and CRMs and for evaluating model simulations. The first variational analysis dataset produced for ARM was based on the Summer 1995 SCM IOP. This was followed by ones for the Spring, Summer, and Fall 1997 SCM IOPs. The Summer 1995 dataset was used for the first ARM SCM intercomparison study ( Cederwall et al

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D. D. Turner, J. E. M. Goldsmith, and R. A. Ferrare

that used GOES radiances to correct the radiosonde dry bias, demonstrated its accuracy, and discussed the utility of this method to correct radiosondes launched at other locations beyond the SGP. Cirrus clouds play an important role in both the energy and moisture budgets of the atmosphere. Upper tropospheric humidity plays an important role in the nucleation (i.e., homogeneous vs heterogeneous nucleation) and maintenance of cirrus clouds, yet is a difficult variable to measure for long periods of

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Baode Chen, Wen-wen Tung, and Michio Yanai

Tomita (1998) and Tung et al. (1999) for more aspects of computing heat and moisture budget residuals and the related analyses. APPENDIX C Determining the Vertical Scale of a Longitude–Height Vector Plot A map’s scale indicates the relationship between a certain distance on the map and the real distance on the earth’s surface. A longitude–height plot usually has different scales between horizontal and vertical directions. When making a longitude–height vector plot, in which the magnitudes of

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S. A. Ackerman, S. Platnick, P. K. Bhartia, B. Duncan, T. L’Ecuyer, A. Heidinger, G. Skofronick-Jackson, N. Loeb, T. Schmit, and N. Smith

1. Introduction Satellite observations have fundamentally transformed how we observe and understand the Earth. From the earliest days of the satellite era, observations have been used to make quantitative measurements of Earth’s atmosphere. The modern satellite atmospheric data record includes temperature and moisture soundings, wind fields, trace gas concentrations, cloud and aerosol properties, precipitation patterns, and radiative budgets. This chapter highlights some of the key advancements

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David A. Randall, Anthony D. Del Genio, Leo J. Donner, William D. Collins, and Stephen A. Klein

proportionality constant in the Gregory (2001) entrainment parameterization works generally for all types of convection. 5. The role of ARM in improving the GFDL model During the ARM era, the AGCM of the GFDL has undergone extensive development. The ARM data were particularly important for the research that led from the earlier version of the model, called the Atmospheric Model version 2 (AM2), to the newer version, called AM3. As described above, observations of temperature and moisture advection, and

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Ted S. Cress and Douglas L. Sisterson

shortwave (total hemispheric), upwelling shortwave (reflected), downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared), and upwelling longwave (surface infrared) radiation. Meteorological instrumentation: Surface-based or tower (i.e., near surface) measurements of meteorological variables [temperature, humidity (i.e. water vapor), pressure, wind speed and direction, precipitation amount, surface fluxes, and cloud cover]. Measurements of aerosols, trace gases, aerosol optical depth, and soil moisture. Vertical

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J. Verlinde, B. D. Zak, M. D. Shupe, M. D. Ivey, and K. Stamnes

–aerosol mixtures; the description of basic cloud microphysical properties and how these are influenced by atmospheric and aerosol characteristics; a better understanding of the relative importance of surface and advective fluxes of moisture for the formation of clouds; a better understanding of the interactions among turbulence, radiation, and cloud microphysical processes in the evolution of the cloudy atmosphere. In addition to these Arctic-centric objectives, it was also realized that environmental

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Guoxiong Wu and Yimin Liu

, can increase the near-surface entropy and result in the development of convective instability and trigger atmospheric ascent, and it is effective in generating atmospheric ascent in the lower troposphere. If surface sensible heating occurs on a mountain slope, and if the mountain is high enough, large amounts of moisture in lower layers are readily transported to the free atmosphere. The TP in summer is a heat source for the atmosphere and has a strong influence on weather and climate. When a

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Yukari N. Takayabu, George N. Kiladis, and Victor Magaña

moisture sink Q 2 and a spectral cloud model, Michio and his students ( Yanai 1961a , 1971b ; Yanai et al. 1973 , 1976 ; Nitta 1977 ) diagnosed convective mass flux from the soundings ( Tao et al. 2016 , chapter 2). It was shown that the vertical profiles of convective mass flux in the Atlantic differed from that over the Marshall Islands of the west-central Pacific, with a layered structure of divergence in the middle troposphere in GATE not found in the Marshall Island data. While maximum

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David M. Schultz, Lance F. Bosart, Brian A. Colle, Huw C. Davies, Christopher Dearden, Daniel Keyser, Olivia Martius, Paul J. Roebber, W. James Steenburgh, Hans Volkert, and Andrew C. Winters

eastern New York and western New England and was investigated by Bosart and Sanders (1991) . They showed that the forecast failure could likely be linked to an improperly analyzed low-level wind field and vertically integrated moisture field. The Presidents’ Day storm coupled with the publication of the first comprehensive climatology of “bomb” cyclones by Sanders and Gyakum (1980) opened the floodgates to further studies of now famous Atlantic coast storms such as the Megalopolitan storm ( Sanders

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